“Shiage toishi” → “Awasedo”

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“Shiage toishi” → “Awasedo”
(Updated: 2017, April, Mai)


Chapters:

Japanese Natural Stones, Kanji & Information (general information):

  • Grit/grain size
  • Naori/Stratum/Layer/Type
  • Color
  • Stamps
  • Mines/stones (general introduction)

Mines/stones:

  1. “Arato” + “Unknown grit”
  2. “Nakato” → “Shiage toishi”
  3. “Shiage toishi” → “Awasedo”


Mines/stones:
Shiage toishi” → “Awasedo”

(grit of approx. 5K till 20K and higher)


「仕上げ砥石」-「仕上げ砥石」 = “Shiage toishi” = “Finishing whetstone”
「合砥」=”Awasedo” = “Finishing/Polishing stone”

Important:
A finishing stone for knifes, tools,… is very different from
a finishing stone for razors

「仕上砥石」 = “Shiage toishi” = more used on knife finishing stones
「合砥」=”Awasedo” = seems to be even finer, I believe it to be
used more often on razor finishing/polishing stones

A finishing stone for an axe is indeed a finishing stone, but
probably useless for razors, a finishing stone for razors
on the other hand is probably useless for an axe…



 A


愛宕
= Atago, 愛宕山 = Atagoyama
= Chu ishi naori type
atago-1 愛宕 = Atago
Atagoyama.png 愛宕砿山合砥 = Atagoyama kōzan Awasedo
= Atagoyama mine finishing stone

Atagoyama (Mount Atago) is situated in the west side of Kyoto city, between
various famous quarries such as Ohira and Nakayama. Quarried for 12 years
after Showa 46 (1971) using bulldozers until being closed. The stratum is formed
as a big round ball (Chu ishi naori type).

The specific kind of rock dug for sharpening stones (Awasedo/Awase-to/Awase toishi)
lays like a shallow patch (called the “Tamba Terrane” and “Ultra Tamba Terrane”) which runs up, over and around the mountains of Yamashiro in a generally westerly direction
out and beyond Kyoto City. This type of rock is found as well further, but is not of the same superior quality as those which is found in the Yamashiro area located in and around the small town of Umegahata.

The accepted center marker for the whole mining region is the peak of “Mt. Atago“,
from there the divisions between the Eastern mines/stones or “Higashi-mono”, and the Western mines/stones or “Nishi-mono” are defined.

→ Also see “鳴滝 or 鳴瀧 = Narutaki”


E


Eastern mines/stones or “Higashi-mono”
→ See “愛宕 = Atago, 愛宕山 = Atagoyama”


H


はっか  or  八箇
= Hakka, a mine (“Western of Mt. Atago) which produced good stones,
usually to the softer and coarser side.


日照山
= Hideriyama (a “Ai-ishi Naori” (合石成り) stone)
SONY DSC Hideriyama is situated on the far west side of Kyoto. Closed in early 2005. This
quarry produced lots of stones with even texture without much metallic lines, normally a soft whetstone and mostly used for finishing chiselsJapanese planes.


“Higashi-mono” or Eastern mines/stones
→ See “愛宕 = Atago, 愛宕山 = Atagoyama”


飛駒 (ヒコマ) (Update ’17, April)
= Hikoma (place), stone without a common name;
合砥, Awasedo = polishing stone, 珪質粘板岩, keishitsu nenbangan = siliceous slate
産地 (production area): 栃木県安蘇郡田沼町飛駒
= Tochigi prefecture, Aso district, Tanuma town, Hikoma
(安蘇郡田沼町 飛駒 (ヒコマ) changed into 佐野市飛駒町, Sano city, Hikoma town)
Hikoma 1a.png


K


Kameoka = mining district which contains the Atago, Ohira and Shinden minesKameoka.png


上赤沢 (カミアカサワ) (Update ’17, April)
= Kamiakasawa (place), Stone without a common name
合砥 (Awasedo) = polishing stone; 珪質粘板岩, keishitsu nenbangan = siliceous slate;
産地 (production area): 茨城県西茨城郡七会村上赤沢
(“茨城県西茨城郡七会村上赤沢” became ⇒ “茨城県東茨城郡城里町上赤沢”;
“Ibaragi prefecture, Nishiibaraki district, Nanakai village, Kamiakasawa” became
⇒ “Ibaragi prefecture, Higashiibaraki district, Shirosato town, Kamiakasawa”)
Kamiakasawa 1a


木津山
= Kizuyama, an eastern mine in Kyoto


神前
= Kouzaki, Tanba, with different mines which produced soft – hard Aoto,
Kouzaki is famous for their hard and fine Aoto stones, the Kouzaki Aoto mine
was closed more than 30 years ago…
Kouzaki.JPG Kouzaki is situated in the west side of Kyoto. It was famous for its medium
grit stones called Aoto (Blue stone). Kouzaki Aoto is considered to be the best Aoto, but
they are almost impossible to find nowadays. Recently Kouzaki’s Suita is starting to receive popularity long after this quarry was closed. It suit modern hard steel with
the stronger cutting strenght. Suita has the strongest cutting strength of all stratum.
→ Also see “Nakato” → “Shiage toishi”: “青砥 = Aoto”
→ Also see “鳴滝 or 鳴瀧 = Narutaki”


京都 (Update ’17, Mai)
= Kyōto Prefecture,
京都市
= Kyōto ichi = Kyoto city
 Japan.png
→ Also see “Shiage toishi” → “Awasedo”: “愛宕 = Atago, 愛宕山 = Atagoyama”,
“日照山 = Hideriyama”, “Kameoka”, “水木原 = Mizukihara”, “中山 = Nakayama”,
“鳴滝 or 鳴瀧 = Narutaki”, “大平 = Ohira”, “奥殿 = Okudo”, “奥ノ門 = Okunomon”,
“大内 = Oochi/Ōuchi/Oh-uchi”, “大突 = Ozuku / Ohzuku”, “新田 = Shinden”,
“菖蒲, 菖蒲谷 = Shobu, Shoubudani”, “梅ヶ畑 = Umegahata”,
“山城 / 山城國 / 山城国 = Yamashiro”
→ Also see “Nakato” → “Shiage toishi”: “Tamba/Tanba Province”
→ Also see Japanese Natural Stones, Kanji & Information: “Maruka”

Kikusui Kyoto 1a1.jpg 菊水 = Kikusui
京都産 = Kyōto-san = From Kyoto (region, prefecture)
優良本山合砥 = Yūryō Honyama Awasedo = Excellent Honyama finishing/polishing stone

Yamashiro 4a Yamashiro 4b Yamashiro 4b1
真正本山合砥 = Shin shō Honyama Awasedo
= True original Honyama finishing/polishing stone
正本山合砥 =  Shō Honyama Awasedo = Original Honyama finishing/polishing stone
山城 = Yamashiro
(梅ヶ畑 = Umegahata)
京都特産仕上砥 = Kyōto tokusan shiageto = Special Kyoto finishing stone product
鉱山元精撰 (?) = Mining original selection
京都特産 = Kyōto tokusan = Kyoto special product


M


丸尾山 (Updated ’17, April)
= Maruoyama, Oouchi district, Kyoto Prefecture, Tamba region just outside
the town of Kameoka, nearby “Ohira mine”. (Nishimono, “Western mine” of Mt. Atago).
Maruoyama is known for stones quarried from the “Hon kuchi naori” and “Ai ishi naori”.
Maruoyama 1b Maruoyama shiro suita 1c 丸尾山蔵砥 = Maruoyama Zō to
= Maruoyama depository/treasury stone;
白巣板 = Shiro Suita = “white” Suita

Maruoyama Uchigumori 1a1 Maruoyama Uchigumori 1b Maruoyama Uchigumori 1c
丸尾山蔵砥 = Maruoyama Zō to
= Maruoyama depository/treasury stone;
敷内曇り = shiki uchigumori = deep uchigumori layer
蔵砥 = Zō to = Stone depository/treasury

Maruoyama Trademark.png
登録商標 = Tōroku shōhyō = Registered trademark
蔵砥 = Zō to = Stone depository/treasury

Currently these mines are not noted for their fine grit stones, but more for the speed
like in the suita stones from the area but this is not to say that excellent and very fine stones have not come from these mines. Maruoyama is one of the last old time owner operated mines that is active, 3 generation of the same family are involved.
SRP Jnat Club


Mikawa nagura (Updated ’17, Mai)
純三河白名倉砥 = Jun (Jyun) Mikawa Shiro nagura-to
= Pure/Authentic Mikawa white Nagura (whet)stone
Mikawa map 1a.png
→ Also see Japanese Natural Stones, Kanji & Information, chapter: “Naori/Stratum/Layer/Type” > “名倉 = Nagura”

In the same neighbourhood, 三河白, Mikawa Shiro (Mikawa white) is found,
which is a white, compact, tuff stone, used for polishing/finishing
(合砥, 白色・緻密・凝灰岩), the 1 m thick Mikawa Shiro layer is formed
between the bulk of “egg yolk coloured” tuff stone (卵黄色塊状凝灰岩)
産地 (production area): 愛知県南設楽郡鳳来町砥沢
= Aichi prefecture, Minamishitara district, Hōrai city, Tozawa
→ Also see “Nakato” → “Shiage toishi”: “名倉砥石 = Nagura toishi”


水木原 ( みずきはら )
= Mizugihara / Mizukihara (Mizuki wa ra)
SONY DSC 水木原 = Mizukihara
Mizugihara 1a1
水木原合砥 = Mizukihara awasedo = Mizukihara (finishing/polishing stone)
一本撰 = Ippon sen = first selection, first class

Mizukihara is the name of the quarry at Ohira mountain (West of Ohira mountain).
(“Western stones” or “Nishi Mono”)
→ Also see “Ohira”


N


“Nagura” → See Japanese Natural Stones, Kanji & Information, chapter: “Naori/Stratum/Layer/Type”, “名倉 = Nagura”
→ Also see “Nakato” → “Shiage toishi”: “Mikawa nagura”
→ Also see “Nakato” → “Shiage toishi”: “名倉砥石 = Nagura toishi”


名倉砥石 (Update ’17, Mai)
= Nagura toishi = Nagura whetstone
中砥石 (chū toishi) = medium grit stone, tuff stone (凝灰岩),
ash yellow – light yellow (灰黄色・淡黄色)
産地 (production area): 愛知県北設楽郡設楽町
= Aichi prefecture, Kitashitara district, Shitara city
Nagura toishi map 1a1.png
→ Also see “Nakato” → “Shiage toishi”: “Mikawa nagura”


中山
= Nakayama
Nakayama Kiita Nashiji.jpg Nakayama 2.jpg 中山合砥 = Nakayama Awasedo = Nakayama finishing stone
Nakayama Tomae Iromono Tebiki 1a kopie 2.jpg 中山鑛山 (鑛 is a variant of 礦)
= 中山礦山(なかやまこうざん)= Nakayama kōzan (Update ’17, April)

Nakayama (Kyoto), as well as Ozuku, … are one of the few mines that produce fine
razor whetstones. There are over 30 of mines in the area Kyoto, but there are not too
many mines that produces hard and fine razor quality whetstones.

The name Honyama is nowadays used for any finishing stones, now it merely means “finishing stone”. Originally though it was the nick name for “Shoubudani mountain”. Nakayama is also one of the quarries from this mountain. In 1190 “Honma Tou-zaemon Toki-nari / Honma fujizaemon” (本間藤左衛門) had been appointed as mining leader
(日本礪石師棟梁, Nihon reiseki-shi tōryō = leader of Japanese stone miners) by the famous Shogun of the Kamakura period, Minamotono Yoritomo (源頼朝). The mountain was therefore called “Honma’s mountain” = “Hon-yama” (“Yama” = mountain). Shoubu-dani
and Nakayama stones are the only true genuine “Honyama” stones.

(ab)

The history of these mines goes back more than 800 years, when the first Nakayama
mine was opened on land owned by a Buddhist temple. These stones quickly gained attention of the local lords, as whetstones were not only useful in military roles, but
also in the vital work of carpenters building castles and temples. Since Kyoto was the home of the emperor, who had a vital role in the Shinto religion of Japan, it and the
nearby city of Nara, are filled with beautiful temples and shrines, each of which required the most skilled craftsmen working with the best tools to build and maintain. At that time, whetstones were a constant necessity for these workers. Also because of this, the mine had been protected for a long time by the Emperor of Japan, Shogun or the Japanese Government. The Honma family solely had mined the mine for a long time, later on the Kato and finally the Hatanaka family owned the Nakayama mine.

A Nakayama stone with a Maruka ㋕正本山 stamp, which is said to give a very fine finish,
is a highly sought finishing whetstone even in Japan. Because the mine is closed, these
are harder and harder to find. The Nakayama mine is thought to be closed more than
30 years ago.

「HATAHOSHI」 or 「畑中砥石」(“Hatanaka Whetstone”). Any Nakayama stone that has this stamp (unless it’s a fake) is guaranteed of its highest quality. Maruka’s (= circled “Ka” = ㋕) “Ka” is Katō’s (Mr. Katō = first owner of Nakayama) first character “Ka”. It does not say though if it is a good stone for razors, or better suited for tools, or knives, swords…

「加藤礦山産出」= Katō kōzan sanshutsu = produced by Katō kōzan
= Mr. Katō = First owner & miner of Nakayama, producer of stones

「純真正本山」 ,「HATAHOSHI」or「畑中砥石」(“Hatanaka Whetstone”), …
= Stone vendor, retailer and owner of Nakayama mine after Mr. Katō

Stones marked「純真正本山」or「HATAHOSHI」, are only “MARUKA” stones if
they have a 「㋕ 正 本 山」 stamp at the side of the stone (unless it’s a fake…)!

(cde)

maruka-1 That said, be aware, there are bad Nakayama stones,
as well as super excellent stones from unknown mines!

→ Also see “菖蒲, 菖蒲谷 = Shobu, Shoubudani”,
→ Also see Japanese Natural Stones, Kanji & Information: “Maruka”
→ Also see “天上巣板 内曇 = Tenjō Suita  (天上巣板, Tenjō Suita) = Uchigumori”


鳴滝 or 鳴瀧 (old kanji, before 1946) (Update ’17, Mai)
= Narutaki

Since the promulgation of the “Tōyō Kanji List” in 1946, different kanji
were simplified (“new character form” or Shinjitai) ⇒ 鳴瀧 became 鳴滝

鳴瀧 = “old” kanji for Narutaki
鳴滝 = “new” kanji for Narutaki

A stone with a 鳴瀧 kanji woulf be a stone “produced” BEFORE
the second World War. Although it is possible that OLD stamps
were used after 1946, or possibly even presently…

The name “Narutaki” can refer to the mine, or the region where the “Higashi Mono”
(Eastern Mines) are located. From Meiji (1868) to early Showa (1920~1940) Narutaki produced an abundance of high quality large sized stones

In the area around Kyoto city, on the northern edge, in the area called “Narutaki,” is a mountain called “Atagoyama”. Clustered around this mountain, spreading to the east,
are a number of smaller mountains riddled with rock mines and quarries: these are
the source of all of the most popular finishing whetstones, and those most often used to sharpen razors here in Japan. The most famous source of fine Japanese stones is a place called “Nakayama”.  There are many other mines nearby: Ozuku, Ohira, Shoubudani, Osaki,… All of these are known collectively as “Eastern” mines, and all of them produced razor quality stones.

(d)

産地 (production area):
京都市右京区梅ヶ畑町
= Kyōto city, Ukyō ward, Umegahata town
京都市右京区嵯峨町原
= Kyōto city, Ukyō ward, Saga town, Hara
京都府南桑田郡亀岡町馬路
=  Kyōto prefecture, Minamikuwada district, Kameoka town, Umaji
京都府亀岡市神前
= Kyōto prefecture, Kameoka city, Kōzaki
京都府南桑田郡吉富村口司
= Kyōto prefecture, Minamikuwada district, Yoshitomi village, Kōshi
京都府亀岡市大内
= Kyōto prefecture, Kameoka city, Ōuchi
京都府北桑田郡美山町板橋
= Kyōto prefecture, Kitakuwada district, Miyama town, Itahashi
京都府北桑田郡瑞穂村桧山
= Kyōto prefecture, Kitakuwada district, Mizuho village, Hiyama
京都府北桑田郡和知村
= Kyōto prefecture, Kitakuwada district, Wachi village
京都府船井郡八木町
= Kyōto prefecture, Funai district, Yagi town
   Kyoto Narutaki area map.png→ Also see “中山 = Nakayama” & “愛宕 = Atago, 愛宕山 = Atagoyama”
→ Also see “大内 = Ōuchi”
→ Also see “梅ヶ畑 = Umegahata”
→ Also see “馬路 = Umaji”
八木 = possibly Yaginoshima → Also see “Yaginoshima”
→ Also see “山城 / 山城國 / 山城国 = Yamashiro”
→ Also see “Nakato” → “Shiage toishi”: “神前 = Kōzaki”

These stones (合砥 (Awasedo) = polishing stones) are made of siliceous slate (珪質粘板岩)

Narutaki 1.jpg Narutaki 2 (kanji < 1946) kopie.png
Narutaki 2 (kanji < 1946).png
正本山鳴瀧合砥 (Middle, BIG kanji, read Up>Down) = Shō honyama Narutaki Awasedo
= Genuine/Authentic Honyama (Narutaki) finishing/polishing stone
日本山城國産出 = Nihon Yamashiro no kuni/koku sanshutsu
= product, originating from the county of Japan, province Yamashiro
京都博旭精撰 = Kyōto haku? Kyoku? sei-sen = Careful selected, best of the
bunch from Kyoto (Not sure of the translation of “haku” and “kyoku”)

Narutaki 3 Jun Makoto Hon Narutaki 2a 純眞本鳴瀧 = Jun Makoto Hon Narutaki
= Pure Authentic (from) Narutaki mine

japan-tool-narutakinakayama-kamisori-size-1ajapan-tool-narutakinakayama-kamisori-size-1a1 證保質品 = Shō-ho-shitsu-hin
= guaranteed quality product, or 品質保證 = hinshitsu hoshō = Quality guarantee
Japan Tool Narutaki:Nakayama? Kamisori size 1a3.png 正本山 = Shōhonyama = Authentic Honyama
(Honyama =  Narutaki (area, Nakayama/Narutaki, OR Narutaki mine…)
Japan Tool Narutaki:Nakayama? Kamisori size 1a4.png 證保等優質品 = Shō-ho-tō yū-shitsu-hin
= A guaranteed excellent quality superior product (?? > not sure of translation!), it
also could be (reversed):
品質優等保證 = hinshitsu yūtō hoshō = Quality superiority guarantee
大日本帝國 = Dai Nihon tei kuni = Empire of Japan (國 = old kanji (<1946),
國 = 国(new). Also, 大日本帝國 was in use between 1889-1945)
山城國特産 = Yamashiro no kuni tokusan = Yamashiro special product
優秀品 = Yūshū-hin = Excellent item
無類本鳴瀧合砥 = Murui hon Narutaki Awaseto (??) = Unequalled real Narutaki Awasedo
採掘部撰 = Saikutsu-bu sen = Mining department
Japan Tool Narutaki:Nakayama? Kamisori size 1a2.png 大日本帝國山城國産出 =

  • 大日本帝國 = Dai Nihon tei kuni = Empire of Japan (國 = old kanji (<1946),
    國 = 国(new). Also, 大日本帝國 was in use between 1889-1945)
  • 山城國 = Yamashiro no kuni
  • 産出 = sanshutsu = produced

⇒ Dai Nihon tei kuni Yamashiro no kuni sanshutsu =
Produced at Yamashiro Province (ancient), Empire of Japan (Great Japanese Empire).

(There is a difference between 山城 (Yamashiro, present timeand
山城國 (Yamashiro no Kuni, ancient province)! → See “Yamashiro”)

正本山鳴瀧合砥 = Shōhonyama Narutaki Awasedo = Authentic Honyama Narutaki Finishing stone (Honyama =  Narutaki (area, Nakayama/Narutaki, OR Narutaki mine…)

?山所有主大阪宮永芳撰 = ? Yama shoyū shu Ōsaka Miyanaga Yoshi sen =
? Mountain owner Osaka Miyanaga

NARUTAKI  KAMISORI TOISHI 1b.png 鳴瀧 = Narutaki (Old kanji <1946)
御かみそり砥 = O kamisori-to = razor (Japanese razor or kamisori) stone
品質極上 = Hinshitsu gokujō = Superb quality
KYOTO JAPAN

Narutaki 5a1.png
Best Razorhone – High Class
鳴瀧 = Narutaki (Old kanji <1946)
正本山 = Shōhonyama = Authentic Honyama (Honyama =
Narutaki (area, Nakayama/Narutaki, OR Narutaki mine…)
合砥 = Awasedo = finishing/polishing stone
品??上
KYOTO JAPAN

Narutaki 7a1 Narutaki 7a1a (Box)
鳴瀧 = Narutaki (Old kanji <1946)
正本山 = Shōhonyama = Authentic Honyama (Honyama =
Narutaki (area, Nakayama/Narutaki, OR Narutaki mine…)
仕上砥  = shiagato = finishing stone
品…極上 = Superb quality product
“KYOTO JAPAN”
Narutaki 7a2a Narutaki 7a2b (Stone)
正本山合砥 = shōhonzan awasedo = True Honzan polishing stone
本鳴瀧… = Hon Narutaki… = Original Narutaki…
The “Leaf” symbol is also seen on “Takao” stones

→ Also see “高雄 = Takao”

Narutaki Boxes kopie.jpg
證保等優質品 = Shō-ho-tō yū-shitsu-hin = A guaranteed excellent quality superior product (?? > not sure of translation!). It also could be (reversed):
品質優等保證 = hinshitsu yūtō hoshō = Quality superiority guarantee
日本山城國産出 = Nihon Yamashiro no kuni sanshutsu = Product of Yamashiro, Empire of Japan (國 = old kanji (<1946)
無類本鳴瀧合砥 = Murui hon Narutaki Awaseto (??) = Unequalled real Narutaki Awasedo
採掘賣販部撰 = Saikutsu u 販部 Sen = Mining and sales department

Narutaki 6a ^タ= 山タ(?) = Yamata (?)
京都特産 = Kyōto tokusan = Kyoto special product
正本山鳴瀧合砥 = Shōhonzan narutaki awasedo = Original Narutaki finishing stone
京都採掘部 = Kyōto saikutsu-bu = Kyoto mining department

Narutaki 4a Narutaki 4a2 高千穂 (たかちほ) = Takachiho
六十切 = “60切 (size?)”
正本山合砥 = Shōhonyama Awasedo = Authentic Honyama finishing stone
(Honyama =  Narutaki (area, Nakayama/Narutaki, OR Narutaki mine…)
産出石質善良 (read R>L) = Sanshutsu-seki-shitsu zenryō =  Good output stone quality
保証 = hoshō = guarantee
無類正本鳴瀧合砥 = Murui hon Narutaki Awaseto = Unequalled real Narutaki Awasedo
精撰 (read R>L) = Seisen = Perfection
正本山鳴瀧合砥 = Shōhonyama Narutaki Awasedo = Authentic Honyama Narutaki Finishing stone (Honyama =  Narutaki (area, Nakayama/Narutaki, OR Narutaki mine…)
鑛山元精撰 = most probable 鉱山元精撰 (modern kanji)
= Mining original selection;

“Takachiho (高千穂)” is probably 
a ranking system, devised by the dealer
; they often
used natural or famous places
 as ranking systems (and used this as an association of quality). “Takachiho” is 
the ancient name for the Japanese home of the Gods.
(forum.guns.ru)

Narutaki 8a Narutaki 8b 2Narutaki 8a 2 Narutaki 8a 3
高千穂 (たかちほ) = Takachiho
四十切 = “40切 (size?)”
(size of this stone: approx. 20 – 7.5 – 3.5 cm)
正本山 = Shōhonyama = Authentic finishing stone
(Honyama =  Narutaki (area, Nakayama/Narutaki, OR Narutaki mine…)
産出石質善良 (read R>L) = Sanshutsu-seki-shitsu zenryō =  Good output stone quality
保証 = hoshō = guarantee
無類正本鳴瀧合砥 = Murui hon Narutaki Awaseto = Unequalled real Narutaki Awasedo
精撰 (read R>L) = Seisen = Perfection
鑛山元精撰 = most probable 鉱山元精撰 (modern kanji)
= Mining original selection;
別上撰 = Betsu-jō sen = separately selected
特撰?証 = Toku sen (?) shō = Special certificate


“Nishi-mono” or Western mines/stones
→ See “愛宕 = Atago, 愛宕山 = Atagoyama”


O


大平
= Ohira = An active “western Kyoto whetstone mine” (“Nishi Mono”)
SONY DSC SONY DSC Ohira Whetstone.jpg Ohira Asagi 2-awasedo kopie.jpeg SONY DSC Ōhira kōzan gō to.png
大平 = Ohira, 大平山 = Ohira Yama (Ohira Mountain)
大平砥石 = Ōhira toishi = Ohira Whetstone
純大平合砥石 = Jun Ōhira Awase Toishi = Genuine Ohira polishing stone
純大平巣板砥 = Jun Ōhira Suita To = Genuine Ohira Suita stone
大平礦山合砥石 = Ōhira kōzan gō toishi = Ohira mine polishing stone

Ohira Suita Renge Watanabe 1a1 Ohira Suita Renge Watanabe 1a2   Ohira Watanabe Renge 1a5 Ohira Watanabe Renge 1a3
Ohira Watanabe Suita Renge 2a5 Ohira Watanabe Suita Renge 2a4 Ohira Watanabe Suita Renge 2a3 撰別 = betsu-sen = selected
大平山 = Ohira yama
ス板 = Suita (Update ’17, April)
With trademark of “Watanabe”
Watanabeblade.com/english

Mount Ohira is situated on the west side of Kyoto (“Western stones” or “Nishi Mono”). Ohira is the name of the mountain and at the same time the name of the quarry. Mizukihara (Mizukihara quarry) which is also situated at Mt. Ohira. Ohira and Mizukihara quarry are at a different altitude, also the owner of the mining rights are different, thus they are regarded as different quarries, thus different stones. Ohira’s history goes back to pre 19th century, when they produced sword polishing stones.

The Ohira mine produced Awasedo (finishing whetstone), Suita, and Uchigumori.
Ohira Uchigumori is a very famous Japanese sword sharpening stone.
Ohira Suita is one of the favorite stones of Japanese carpenters, because it is fast and fine.


奥殿
= Okudo = a semi-active “eastern mine” (Higashi Mono), best known for their “Suita”
Okuda 2a (stone) Okudo Suita Box.png (stamp on wooden box)
奥殿巣板 = Okudo Suita
Okudo suita is known for its speed and hardness as they produced some of the hardest and fastest suitas that was very popular among carpenters in Japan


奥ノ門
= Okunomon, “Western Kyoto mine”, west side of Atago Mountain in Kyoto,
located next to Ohira mine (very famous Suita mine), produces very high quality white suita (shiro suita). Okunomon Suita (in general) is faster and harder than Ohira Suita.
This mine produced Awasedo and Suita.
SONY DSC


大内
= Oochi/Ōuchi/Oh-uchi
Oochi is one of Kameoka mines, especially used for finishing chisels & Japanese planes.
Oochi kopie.jpg
   Kyoto Narutaki area map.png
→ Also see “鳴滝 or 鳴瀧 = Narutaki”


大谷山
= Otaniyama (Update ’17, April)
(Grit range?)
Otaniyama 1b1
Otaniyama 1a Otaniyama 1bOtaniyama 1c


音羽山 (Update ’17, April)
= Otoyama, a whetstone mine known for producing Suita


尾崎 (Update ’17, April)
= Ozaki, a whetstone mine in Tamba, Kyoto prefecture,
in the neighbourhood of “Shinden” & “Ohira”

Also called “Sororo Ozaki”
   Kyoto Narutaki area map.png

→ Also see “Nakato” → “Shiage toishi”: “Tamba/Tanba Province”


大突
= Ozuku / Ohzuku
Ohzuku stamp ozuku-2 Ozuku.jpeg
Ozuku (Kyoto) (=Higashi-mono , Eastern stones), as well as Nakayama, … is one of few
mines that produce fine razor whetstones. There are over 30 of mines in the area Kyoto, but there are not too many mines that produces hard and fine razor quality whetstones.
Ozuku has a very fine grain, usually quite hard, sometimes too hard and scratchy. Ozuku had quarried a variety of stones, from Shiki Suita at the bottom to Tenjyou Suita at the top. The quarrying has been stopped for decades but the rough stones that were quarried are still being processed into products.

Shiroto = a whetstone mine connected to Ozuku


S


新田
= Shinden (=Nishi-mono, Western stones)
Shinden 2.jpg Shinden.jpg Shinden can be considered the queen of Suita. The quality comes very close to Okudo Suita, and some people prefer Shinden over Okudo because of its mild cutting strength. It is located on the other side (west) of Mt. Atago, thus called Nishi-mono (Western stones). It is also called Tanba-mono (Tanba stones) since it is situated in the Tanba district (Tamba?) along with Ohira, etc.

   Kyoto Narutaki area map.png
→ Also see “Nakato” → “Shiage toishi”: “Tanba/Tamba Province”


Shiroto (Update ’17, April)
= a whetstone mine connected to Ozuku


菖蒲, 菖蒲谷 (Update ’17, April)
= Shobu, Shoubudani
Shoubudani, Kyoto (菖蒲,Shoubu,”iris” (a flower), 谷,Tani,”valley”)
shoubudani Shobu 2.png Shobu 1.jpeg Shoubudani 2.jpg Shobu 3a1 2
石銘 or 銘石 = “Ishi mei”, or “mei ishi” = “stone inscription”
菖蒲産 = Shōbu-san = Produkt from Shōbu

Shobu 3a1.jpg Shobu 3b1 菖印 = Shobu (Trade)mark
天授正本山合砥 = Tenju shōhonyama Awasedo
= “Natural gifts” (Tenju) Authentic Honyama Finishing stone
最級品 = sai-kyū-hin = The finest item
京都砥石 = Kyoto whetstone
産業所?産 = Industrial production (Not sure…)

Shoubudani, Kuraire Shoubu 1b.JPG 蔵入菖蒲, Kuraire Shoubu = Collection Shoubu
山来型, Yamaki-gata = Mountain type (?)

The Shobu(dani) mine is located very close to famous mines such as Okudo, Ozuku , Nakayama, and Narutaki, positioned at the east side of Atago mountain (Higashi-mono).
As far as 800 years ago, awasedo were mined at the Shoubudani quarry, the original mine to yield the high quality whetstones of Kyoto. This mine eventually run dry, production moved then to other mines.
   Kyoto Narutaki area map.png

Shoubudani and Nakayama stones were patronised by the Imperial household, for its superior quality used for polishing swords. Between the Kamakura period (1185~1333)
to mid Muromachi period (1336~1573) these stones were never been traded among the commonality . It was at the end of the Muromachi period when these stones appeared within the general market, although that the top stones were still monopolised by the royalties. These with lines and odd shapes were used by the craftsmen and carpenters, which contributed to drastic improvement in quality of their work. The Shoubu(dani) quarry was shut down in 1975.

The name Honyama is nowadays used for any finishing stones, now it merely means “finishing stone”. Originally though it was the nick name for “Shoubudani mountain”. Nakayama is also one of the quarries from this mountain. In 1190 “Honma Tou-zaemon Toki-nari / Honma fujizaemon” (本間藤左衛門) had been appointed as mining leader
(日本礪石師棟梁, Nihon reiseki-shi tōryō = leader of Japanese stone miners) by the famous Shogun of the Kamakura period, Minamotono Yoritomo (源頼朝). The mountain was therefore called “Honma’s mountain” = “Hon-yama” (“Yama” = mountain). Shoubu-dani
and Nakayama stones are the only true genuine “Honyama” stones.

(ab)

→ Also see “中山 = Nakayama”


T


高雄 (Update ’17, April)
= Takao, a whetstone mine in “Kyoto”, “Yamashiro no kuni”
(most possibly Northern part of Kyoto, Umegahata)
which produced excellent Awasedo
Takao Kyoto 1a1 Takao Kyoto 1a2 純本山合砥
= Jun Honyama Awasedo = Real Honyama finishing stone
最高級品 = saikōkyūhin = highest grade product
京都 高雄産出 = Kyōto Takao sanshutsu = Kyōto Takao production

Takao Kyoto 2a 2 Takao Kyoto 2b Takao Kyoto 2c 2
砥石 (read R>L)  = toishi = whetstone
品質優良 = Hinshitsu Yūryō = good quality
正本山合砥 = shōhonyama awasedo = Real Honyama Awasedo
採堀元別撰 = To hori moto betsu sen = “hometown’s” (?) special selection
京都 高雄産出 = Kyōto Takao sanshutsu = Kyōto Takao production
最高級 = Sai kōkyū = first-class
純本山 = Jun Honyama = Pure Honyama

blogmaruhann.maruhann.shop-pro.jp

Takao (Umegahata Takaocho = Takao town, Umegahata) is about 50′
driving from Kyoto city, Takaoyama 高雄山, very close to Atagoyama:
Takaoyama.png
Takao.png

→ Also see: “山城 / 山城國 / 山城国 = Yamashiro”


高島
= Takashima 妙覚山 = Myōkaku yama (dani)
高島妙覚山 = Takashima myōkaku yama = Mt. Takashima
(Stones from “Hon kuchi naori”)
Takashima Myokakudani 1 kopie.jpeg SONY DSC
The Takashima whetstone has approximately 200 years of history.
It is shipped from Takashima harbor to Otsu.
 Japan.png
takashima-otsu
(京都 = Kyōto, 京都市 = Kyōto ichi = Kyoto city)
Because of its similar quality as Nakayama and very consistent, but mostly
a little bit softer, Takashima whetstone can be excellent before using the hard
finisher stones. It can erase scratches after medium grit whetstone usage.
Takashima stones are said to have a very low amount of unwanted particles.


天上巣板 内曇 (Update ’17, April, Mai)
= Tenjō Suita  (天上巣板, Tenjō Suita)
= “Uchigumori”, traditionally mined at the “Ohira” mine. There are two types, the
softer Uchigumori Hato (内曇刃砥) or Habiki (刃引き), to finish/polish the “Ha” (the cutting edge, below the “Hamon”), and the harder Uchigumori Jito (内曇地砥) or Jibiki (地引き), to finish/polish the “Ji”.

These stones are also used as finger stones, for example “Hazuya”(刃艶), to bring out the
“Hamon”. There are also other mines that produce Uchigumori, for example Narutaki,
or Maruoyama (丸尾山). Traditionally the harder Narutaki Uchigumori is used for Jizuya
(地艶, stones used to bring out the patterns on Ji), the softer Narutaki Uchigumori is used
for “Hazuya”(刃艶)

Uchigumori is usually mined from the top layer, “Tenjō Suita” (天上巣板 = “ceiling (nest) plate”). At Mt. Maruo (Maruoyama, 丸尾山), “Uchigumori” is also mined from the deep and upper part of “Shiki suban-sō/Shiki suita-sō” (敷巣板層 = “bedding (nest) plate layer”)

→ “敷内曇り”  or  “しきうちぐもり”, Shiki uchigumori = “bedding uchigumori”

Tōken-yō 3a1 Tōken-yō 2a1 Uchigumori Token-yo Habiki 1a2.jpg 内曇 = Uchigumori
刀剣用 = , Tōken-yō (For swords)
刃引き = Habiki = use for cutting edge (Ha)

Maruoyama Uchigumori 1a1 Maruoyama Uchigumori 1b Maruoyama Uchigumori 1c
丸尾山蔵砥 = Maruoyama Zō to
= Maruoyama depository/treasury stone;
敷内曇り = shiki uchigumori = deep uchigumori layer
蔵砥 = Zō to = Stone depository/treasury

There are also other mines who produced Uchigumori:

Nakayama
Nakayama Uchigumori 1a1 Nakayama Uchigumori 1a2 Nakayama Uchigumori 1a3
中山車口砥 = Nakayama kuruma-guchi to = Nakayama ? stone
内曇 = Uchigumori
別選 = betsu-sen = Selected
(On Nakayama, these stones were carried by wooden lorry car on wooden rails;
the name 車口砥 “kuruma-guchi to” would have something to do with it).

→ Also see “中山 = Nakayama”


U


Uchigumori → See “天上巣板 内曇 = Tenjō Suita  (天上巣板, Tenjō Suita) 内曇 Uchigumori”


馬路山 (= a Nishi-mono whetstone mine, located west of Mt. Atago)
= Umaji Yama, near Ohira & Mizukihara, produces similar whetstone as these mines. Usually, Umaji Yama hones are very soft, but there are hard hones as well.
(roughly around 6-8K, keep in mind though that natural stones variate!)
Umaji yama.jpg
→ Also see “鳴滝 or 鳴瀧 = Narutaki”


梅ヶ畑  or  梅が畑 (Update ’17, April)
= “Umegahata” = mining district in a valley area, Kyoto, Japan, which
contains mines such as Nakayama (中山), Kizuyama / Kidzuyama (木津山),
Narutaki Mukōda / Narutaki Mukaida (鳴滝向田 or なるたきむかいだ),
Shōbu (菖蒲 or しょうぶ), Takao (高雄), ōdzuku / Ozuku (大突 or おおづく), Okudo (奥殿 or おくど),
and others…
Umegahata kopie.jpeg
→ Also see “鳴滝 or 鳴瀧 = Narutaki”


W


若狭
= Wakasa; Wakasa mine, Fukui Prefecture, mined at “Miyama Mountain”
= very close to the border of Kyoto (Kyōto area 京都, not the city Kyōto 京都市)
SONY DSC
  Japan.png
takashima-otsu
(京都 = Kyōto, 京都市 = Kyōto ichi = Kyoto city)
Wakasa is known for his fine razor finisher whetstones,
as well for its great sharpening stones for razors, high quality cooking knifes, chisels,
and planes, some Wakasa are very hard and fine, but many are slightly soft.


Western mines/stones or “Nishi-mono”
→ See “愛宕 = Atago, 愛宕山 = Atagoyama”


Y


八木ノ嶋  or  八木嶋  or  八木の嶋
= Yaginoshima
八木ノ嶋合砥
= Yaginoshima Awasedo
Yaginoshima 2a Yaginoshima 2.jpeg Located east of Ohira, North of Kouzaki, this mine has been under
control of Akechi Mitsuhide who has overthrown the famous first ruler of entire
Japan Oda Nobunaga. The stones were supplied to various woodworkers and
sword polishers within his district. Suita from Yaginoshima is most famous (along
with various Namito), it has a strong cutting strength with smooth texture.
This mine has been closed long time ago.
Yaginoshima Size 41 Yaginoshima Size 42.jpg
八木ノ嶋合砥 = Yaginoshima Awasedo
四十型 = Yoto-gata = “Size/type 40”
別上品 = betsu jōhin = special item
アサギ = “asagi” (colour)


Yamagata Kazama (Update ’17, April);
Apparently there is a whetstone, without a name, that is quarried at
山形県山形市楯山風間砥山 = Yamagata prefecture, Yamagata city, Tateyama Kazama Toyama; this stone would be an awasedo (合砥, polishing stone), made of shale (頁岩)Yamagata Kazama 1d Yamagata Kazama 1c
Yamagata Kazama 1b Yamagata Kazama 1a.png


^市 (Update ’17, April)
= Yama ichi, said to be a sedimentary natural stone from the north of Kyoto,
grit range varies between approx. 4-6K or 8-10K  or even 12K

Yamaichi 2a1 Yamaichi 3a1 正本山 = Shōhonyama

Strangely enough the next stamp  shows Yamaichi AND Shoubudani…
Yamaichi Shoubudani 12K 1a.png 菖蒲 = Shobu, Shoubu

https://japanische lebensart.de…schleifsteine bruecke
https://japanische lebensart.de…shoboudani

I have no idea what this means…

→ Also see “菖蒲, 菖蒲谷 = Shobu, Shoubudani”


山城 / 山城國 / 山城国
= Yamashiro

山城國 = 山城国 = (Ancient) Yamashiro Province (山城国 Yamashiro no Kuni) was a province of Japan, located in Kinai. It overlaps the southern part of modern Kyoto Prefecture on Honshū. Yamashiro Province included Kyoto itself, as in 794 AD Yamashiro became the seat of the imperial court, and, during the Muromachi period, was the seat of the Ashikaga shogunate as well. The capital remained in Yamashiro until its de facto move to Tokyo in the 1870’s.

Once, a great area around Kyoto, Nara and maybe even Osaka was included in the “Yamashiro no Kuni” area (over 1000 years of history!). Trough history, the area became smaller, until, after the second world war to this present day,  “Kyu Yamashiro” or “Old Yamashiro” beholds the area just to the west of the city limits of Kyoto with the Umegahata village as the center and including Narutaki and Takao.

→ Also see “高雄 = Takao”

Takao (Umegahata Takaocho = Takao town, Umegahata) is about 50′
driving from Kyoto city, Takaoyama 高雄山, very close to Atagoyama:
Takaoyama.png
Takao.png

Boxes of stones:
Yamashiro boxes 1aYamashiro boxes 1b

  • 山城高雄産出 = Yamashiro Takao sanshutsu = Yamashiro Takao produkt
  • 純本山合砥 = Jun Honyama Awasedo = Real Honyama finishing stone
    砥 = To = Whetstone
    採掘元特撰 = Saikutsu moto toku sen = Original mining source special selection
  • 登録商標 = Tōroku shōhyō = Registered trademark
    品質保証 = Hinshitsu hoshō = Quality assurance
    朝日虎 = Asahi tora = Asahi Tiger = (morning) Sun​ Tiger
    山城國産 = Yamashiro kuni-san = Yamashiro Kokusan
    本山合砥 = Honzan Awasedo = Honzan finishing stone
    大阪山マ (^^マ)採掘特撰 = Ōsaka yama ma (da/ha) saikutsu toku sen
    = Osaka Yamaha (Yamada?) mining expertise
  • 正本山合砥 = Shōhonzan Awasedo = True Honyama finishing stone
    鳴瀧 = Narutaki (Old kanji <1946)
    品貭極上 = Hin 貭 gokujō = Superb product
    KYOTO JAPAN

Yamashiro 1 kopie  登録商標 = Tōroku shōhyō
= Registered trademark
品質保証 = Hinshitsu hoshō = Quality assurance
朝日虎 = Asahi tora = Asahi Tiger, (morning) Sun​ Tiger
山城國産 = Yamashiro kuni-san = Yamashiro Kokusan
本山合砥 = Honzan Awasedo = Honzan finishing stone
大阪山マ採掘特撰 = Ōsaka yama ma (da/ha) saikutsu toku sen
= Osaka Yamaha (Yamada?) mining expertise

山城本山 = Yamashiro Honzan
Yamashiro Honzan 1a.jpg 山城 Yamashiro (area) had quite a large number of mines, the
kanji 本山 Honzan (“main temple (Buddhist monastery)”), was used specifically and
only for the toishi mines 中山 Nakayama or 菖蒲谷 Shoubudani. Yamashiro though is referred often with “Narutaki”, which normally would be a reference to the region Narutaki, and not the mine Narutaki.

Yamashiro 2.jpg (Read from R>L) 無類 = Murui = Unrivaled
天然仕上砥石 = Ten’nen (Tennen) shiagetoishi = Natural finishing whetstone
^市 = Yamaichi = mine?
山城國産物 = Yamashiro kuni sanbutsu = Yamashiro district product
京都別元撰 = Kyōto moto betsu sen = Kyoto original selection

Yamashiro 3a kopie Yamashiro 3b kopie
正真本山 = shōshin honzan = True Authentic Honyama
大上別撰 = Ōgami betsu sen = Large / special selection
ス板 = Suita
特級品 = Tokkyū-hin = special class product
三切 = 3…(?)
登録商標 = Tōroku shōhyō = Registered trademark
山城國産 = Yamashiro kuni-san = Yamashiro Kokusan
品質保証 = Hinshitsu hoshō = Quality assurance
朝日虎 = Asahi tora = Asahi Tiger = (morning) Sun​ Tiger
本山合砥 = Honzan Awasedo = Honzan finishing stone
大阪山マ採掘特撰 = Ōsaka yama ma (da/ha) saikutsu toku sen
= Osaka Yamaha (Yamada?) mining expertise

→ Also see “Narutaki”
→ Also see “Nakato” → “Shiage toishi”: “朝日虎印 = Asahi tora jirushi”



⇐ Previous chapter: “Nakato” → “Shiage toishi”



References:

(1): http://rk-trading.ocnk.net/page/28
(a): http://www.japan-tool.com/tech_knlg/toishi/Natural_Stone_Mines.html
(b): http://yhst-27988581933240.stores.yahoo.net/shobu-asagi-karasu-natural-whetstone-1544g-1544377.html
(c): http://yhst-27988581933240.stores.yahoo.net/nakayama-iromono-hatahoshi-japanese-natural-sharpening-stone.html
(d): http://sharpologist.com/2012/04/an-introduction-to-japanese-hones-pt-1.html
(e):http://www.japan-tool.com/tech_knlg/toishi/Awasedo.html
(f): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanba_Province
(g): http://thejapanblade.com/blog/
(h): http://www.thejapanstone.com/Aritcle_hardstone.html
(i): http://www.badgerandblade.com/forum/threads/buying-nakayama-stones-from-ohira-and-imanishi.421539/
(j): http://straightrazorplace.com/hones/82246-maruichi-question.html
(k): http://straightrazorplace.com/hones/105095-maruka-nakayama-stamps-2013-a.html
(l): http://www.thejapanstone.com/article_ink_stamps_nakayama_mine.html

Other interesting links:

http://www.tomonagura.com/jnats/japanese-whetstone-info/japanese-whetstone-glossary.html

http://www.tomonagura.com/jnats/japanese-whetstone-info/jnat-stamps.html

http://www.japanesenaturalstones.com/about-japanese-natural-stones/

http://rk-trading.ocnk.net/page/28

https://sites.google.com/site/japanesetooldescription/tennen-toishi-tian-ran-di-shi-natural-whetstone/natural-whetstone-of-kyoto-information-and-history

http://www.kamakura-bori.com/503naturalstone.html#マルカのタイトル

http://www.kamakura-bori.com/503naturalstone.html

http://www.kamakura-bori.com/503natu…83%88%E3%83%AB

http://www.geocities.jp/kinomemocho/hamono_tennentoishi.html

http://www.toishi.jp/maruo.html

http://www.ibiblio.org/japanwood/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=1348

http://straightrazorplace.com/razors/119450-kanji-help-post-here-your-requests-24.html#post1704512

http://straightrazorplace.com/hones/74160-j-nat-club-40.html

http://japanesenaturalstones.blogspot.be/2011_05_01_archive.html

If you can read Japanese, these books contain more information:

[ 大工道具・砥石と研ぎの技法 ]

[ 京都天然砥石の魅力(改訂・三版)]



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3 Responses to “Shiage toishi” → “Awasedo”

  1. Pingback: Japanese Natural Stones, Kanji & Information | Fikira

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