Revil George

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Revil George

Please first read:
Background information about the Cutlers’ Company, Freedom, marks…
(This article has information which makes certain things more clear)


1774 “Sketchley’s Sheffield Directory”
Revill George, razor and jack penknife maker New street
Revill George, Newstreet 1aRevill George, Newstreet 1b

1781 “Bailey’s Northern Directory” (sheffieldhistory.co.uk/forumsLink)
Revill George and sons razor and jack penknife maker New streetRevill George and sons.JPG
(also mentioned in this directory:
Revill Charles filesmith Hill)

(LITTLE COMMON, in the parish of Sheffield,
Wapentake of Strafforth and Tick-Hill; 4 miles SSW. of Sheffield)

(Thomas REVILL 1786 (F), father Abraham REVILL, Little Common, cutler
(Abraham REVILL = most probably “Abraham Revel”, Little Common, cutler
(pocket knives) with trademark “EPHOD” (Gales & Martin 1787))

1822 “Baines’s Directory Yorkshire Vol 1 West Riding, Sheffield”
“CUTLERY, Pen and Pocket Knife Manufacturers”:
Revill / Revell Samuel, 19, Keaton (or Keatson) square, Nursery
Revil / Revill Thomas, Little Common

1825 “General & Commercial Directory of Sheffield”
“Pocket knife mfrs.”: Revill Thomas & Son, near the Well, Little Sheffield

1828 “Blackwell, Sheffield Directory”
“Pocket knife mfrs.”: Revill Thomas & Son, near the Well, Little Sheffield

1833 & 1837 “White”
“Pen & pocket knife mfrs.”: Revell Thomas and Son, Little Sheffield

1841 “Pigot & Co.’s Directory of … Sheffield”,
“Pen & pocket knife mfrs.”: Revell Thomas, Little Sheffield

1845 “general directory Sheffield, White”
Revill John, spring knife mfr. Radford street ; house Radford place

1847 “Slater’s Directories of Important English Towns”
“Pen & pocket knife manufacturers”: Revell John, Redford st

It is very hard to search a name, if it is written differently in different directories, different on the razor itself, sometimes even differently in the same directory…

Without a doubt,
Revill George, razor and jack penknife maker New street (1774 “Sketchley’s”),
Revill George and sons razor and jack penknife maker New street (1781 “Bailey’s”),
Revel George, razor maker, also Jacks, Ratten Row (1787 “Gales & Martin”), and
Revil G., seen on the razors are one and the same George!
(or maybe George Junior as well, see further)

So, we need to find a “Revill” (1774, “Sketchley’s”, 1781 “Bailey’s”),
Revel” (1787, “Gales & Martin”), or “Revil” (stamp “falchion G R” on razor),
who had this trademark:
Revill George, Newstreet 1b (“falchion G R”).
We don’t have to be surprised if even the variant “Revell” is used…




Normally I can find more information, for instance family trees, documents, …

With the search for “Revil” I didn’t had this at all, the only thing I could rely
on was the information I could find of the lists of Masters, apprentices
(with the names of their father), found on:
sheffieldrecordsonline.org.uk” (search on the “cutlers” tab >
“apprentices”, first you need to be registered & logged in),
freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com” (search by letter &
compare with the information found on previous link)
The remaining bit was done by many & long hours of thinking, analysing & speculation…
Maybe it is best first to read this: (Information about “apprentices”, “masters”, “Freedom”,…)
Background information about the Cutlers’ Company, Freedom, marks…

Searching for different possibilities at “sheffieldrecordsonline.org.uk

& “freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com“, we find:

(“Where no abode is given then “Sheffield” is generally to be understood”)
 Apprentice
(+ start date, F = Freedom)
Parent
Master
George REVELL
(1730/1737, F1739)


George REVELL
(1736, 8y. app. F1744)


George Revel
(Poor boy, 1752, 8y. app.)

Samuel JOHNSON
(1753, 9y.)

John Revell *
(1759, F1774)

Joseph SPURR
(1764)

Matthias SMITH
(1766, F1777)

George REVELL
(1770, F1776)

Henry REVELL
(1770, F1777)

Joseph WIGGLESWORTH
(1774) 

James WIGGLESWORTH
(1776

Richard HALL
(1778, 7-3y.)

James ANTROBUS
(F1786)

John COX
(1781, 7y. app.)

John BAGSHAW
(1783, 7y. app.)

George HOLDEN *
(1788, 10y. app.)

John CROOKES
(F 1791)

Samuel HARRISON
(F 1791)

John TURTON
(1789)

Daniel ROBINSON
(1789, 7y. app.)

George Revill (1802)
Tristram REVELL,
Whiston, husbandman

Henry REVELL, Bramley,
wheelwright

?
(Worksop)

Samuel JOHNSON, Rotherham

George REVELL*
cutler

Samuel SPURR,
Sheffield, Moor 

Daniel SMITH, cutler
(Deceased)

George REVELL
cutler

George REVELL
cutler

William
WIGGLESWORTH 

William
WIGGLESWORTH 

Richard HALL,
Worsbrough

James
ANTROBUS

Joseph COX, cutler
(deceased †)

James BAGSHAW, Barmbrough (labourer)

Elias HOLDEN *
(late Rotherham)

Jonathan
CROOKES

Samuel
HARRISON

John TURTON, Barnsborough

Daniel ROBINSON,
Rotherham, shoemaker (†)

Henry Revill, razor maker
1730, Jeremiah LORD, cutler
1737, Joseph CAWTON

Jonathan MORTON
(cutler)

Joseph DYSON, Owlerton
(cutler)

George REVELL,
cutler

? George REVELL,
cutler ?

George REVILL ,
cutler (SEE REVELL)

George REVELL,
cutler

George REVELL,
cutler

George REVELL,
cutler

George REVELL,
cutler 

George REVELL, junior
cutler 

George Revill,
cutler

George REVELL,
cutler

George Revill,
cutler

George REVEL,
cutler

George REVIL & SON
cutler *

George REVEL,
razor maker

George REVEL,
razor maker

George Revill,
cutler

George REVEL,
cutler

Samuel DUTTON, knife maker
(the specific craft of “razorsmith” in which Freedom could be granted was generally listed
no sooner then the 1780s, in the 
1774 “Sketchley’s Sheffield Directory” though
there is already mentioning of “razor makers”
, “balh.org.uk“)
George REVIL & SON“, who had “George HOLDEN (Father: Elias HOLDEN, late Rotherham)”
as an apprentice in 1788 for 10 years were in fact “George REVELL, cutler”, with his son
“John Revell/Revil (1759, F1774)”, and not the George Revel and sons were looking for.
(for more information, see further below this article)
: “Joseph SPURR (1764)”, one source puts his master as Revell, the other as Revill!
*²: “Joseph Wigglesworth”, 1774, apprenticed to George Revell 
“James WIGGLESWORTH” (his brother), apprenticed to:
(1) 1776 (7,5 y.) George Revell, junior.; 
(2) 1779 (3-11) to Smith Thomas

Both, “George REVELL” (1730, 1737, F1739), as well as “George REVELL” (1736, F1744),
would have apprentices. It is impossible to say which George Revell had which apprentices. That is why I haven’t noted all apprentices of “George Revell”

Now, when we look at the real evidence, we see:

  • 1774 “Sketchley’s Sheffield Directory”
    Revill George, razor and jack penknife maker New street
    Revill George, Newstreet 1a
    Revill George, Newstreet 1b
  • 1781 “Bailey’s Northern Directory” (Link)
    Revill George and sons razor and jack penknife maker New street
    Revill George and sons.JPG
  • 1787 “Gales & Martin”
    George Revel, cutler, Ratten Row (Ratten Row = Radford Street)
    Revel George 1aRevel George 1b


So, between 1774 & 1781, George Revill, razor and jack penknife makerNew street,
had at least 2 son’s who were granted Freedom to work with their father. Meaning,
those 2 son’s were ≥21years around 1775-1780, thus born ≤1754-1759, which gives
a timeframe in which father George was born, around ≤1726-1738. Father George
would have become an apprentice ≤1740-1752, and granted Freedom ≤1747-1759.

The directory of 1787 (“Gales & Martin”) shows 2 trademarks of George Revel, 1 of
them is the known trademark of George Revill (1774 “Sketchley’s Sheffield Directory”).
Revill George, Newstreet 1b Despite is was normal to have more then one trademark when they became Freeman of another discipline, I believe it would be strange to have a second
trademark around the age of 40-50 years…
Revel George 1c.JPG Because “Revel (Revill) George” moved (to “Ratten Row”), also because
of the second trademark (and the fact there isn’t mentioned an extra trade which would explain a second trademark) and the change from “Revill George and sons” to “Revel (Revill) George”, I believe the “1787 Gales & Martin” “George Revel/Revill” is “George Revel/Revill Junior! He would have inherited the trademark of his father,
Revill George, Newstreet 1b (“falchion G R”)

I wouldn’t be surprised if father George Revill had died between 1781 & 1787, or at least wasn’t able to work anymore. By then, George Revel junior would have inherited his fathers trademark (“falchion G R”).
Revel George 1c.JPG George Revel’s second trademark (“cross BELVOIR”) in “1787 Gales & Martin Directory”, could be George Revel junior‘s own trademark, granted together with his freedom. (or maybe of his brother Henry?).

Of course, all of this is pure speculative…

Still, all this information leads to the assumption that “George REVELL (1770, F1776)
Henry REVELL (1770, F1777), son’s of George Revell, cutler, could very well be the
son’s of the George Revill we’re looking for.

It appears to fit very well! Knowing that “George & Henry Revell” (son’s of George), got their Freedom in  1776 (George) & 1777 (Henry), it would explain the fact that “George Revill/Revell” (father) was listed in 1774 without his son’s (they were still
in their apprenticeship), and “Revill George & sons” was listed in 1781. This isn’t evidence, but still a assumable possibility!


Now, look a moment at next example:
Revell George, master, example
Matthias SMITH, son of Daniel Smith, Grenoside, cutler (deceased); was apprenticed to: (1) Robinson Jonathan, cutler, 9-2, 1761;
(2) Staniland Richard, cutler, 7, 1763;
(3) Revell George, cutler, 3-9, 1766, F1777
I believe what is meant is:
(1) Matthias Smith needed to be an apprentice of Robinson Jonathan for 9y. (Before
being a Freeman), after 2y., for some reason (sickness, death of the master,…) it
wasn’t possible to continue…
(2) Matthias continued the remaining period (7y.) as an apprentice of Staniland Richard.
(3) 3y. later, in 1766, he continued his apprenticeship with Revell George. He only needed 3y. (till 1769), but he was bound (probably to work as a journeyman) for a period of 9y. (an extra 6y.) instead of 3y. (until 1775), before he it was possible for him to be Free and start his own firm, after which Matthias Smith was granted his Freedom in 1777.
(Also see “Background information about the Cutlers’ Company, Freedom, marks…“:

“…It seems likely that this was designed to use them as journeymen.
It seems that poor boys, or boys whose fathers was dead, were
more likely to be bound for longer periods. “balh.org.uk”…

Revell George, son of George,

Revell George, son of George, cutler, to Father, cutler; 3-8, 1770, F1776;
If the previous statement is correct, following example suggests, that Revell George, son of George, cutler, was apprenticed (1770) for a minimum period of 3 years (to be granted Freedom, minimum in 1773) to his father, but was bound for 8 years (until 1778). So, George junior was a Freeman in 1776, but stays working for his father (under his name) until at least 1778. This also suggests that George junior was 21 years old around 1773 (minimum age of 21 to be Freeman)!

When we look for more details on the brothers Wigglesworth, found in the list above::
Revell George, jr., Wigglesworth: “Joseph WIGGLESWORTH”, 1774, apprenticed to George Revell
“James WIGGLESWORTH” (his brother), apprenticed to:
(1) 1776 (7,5 y.) George Revell, junior.; 
(2) 1779 (3-11) to Smith Thomas,

it seems clear that “Joseph Wigglesworth” was apprenticed to “father George Revell”,
and “James Wigglesworth” to “George Revell junior. If “George Revell junior is
indeed “George Revell (1770, F1776)”, and was allowed to take his Freedom in “1773,
he would have been working for three years with his father before taking his first apprentice, as obligated by the Company (Background information about the Cutlers’ Company, Freedom, marks…). He maybe had waited to take his Freedom until he was
at age to have apprentices (1776), after this he still would have worked with his father for at least two years, till 1778. (Revell George, son of George, cutler, to Father, cutler; 3-8, 1770, F1776). Or everything was written down in a contract between father & son.
After this he remained working with his father, according to “1781 Bailey’s Northern Directory”, “Revill George and sons” razor and jack penknife maker New street), and most probably worked on his own in ≤1787 (“1787 Gales & Martin“,George Revel, razor maker, also Jacks, Ratten Row).

Assuming “Revell George, son of George, cutler, to Father, cutler; 3-8, 1770, F1776″  ,
means that George junior was 21y. in 1773, (thus °1752), the earlier found timeframe
in which father George could have been born, (around 1726-1738, because 2 son’s
were ≥21years around 1775-1780), can be adjusted to 1724-1731. Father George
would the have become an apprentice around ≤1738-1745, and granted Freedom
around 1745-1752.

As seen in the list above, George REVELL (1730, 1737, F1739, father: Tristram),
as well as George REVELL (1736, F1744, father Henry), could both possible be
father George Revill/Revell” with trademark:
Revill George, Newstreet 1b

Henry REVELL (Bramley, wheelwright), father of George REVELL (1736, F1744),
had at least one other son, Joseph REVELL, apprenticed to Robert KIPPAX, cutler;
Joseph REVELL was granted his Freedom in 1765.

Assuming that the father of George Revell (1770, F1776) & Henry Revell
(1770, F1777) named his children after his father and himself, I would
think that the first possibility (George REVELL (1736, F1744)) could be
more assumable…

If this is the case, they most probably wouldn’t make razors, pen & pocketknives
in the 19th century, since there is a no cutler named George or Henry Revel(l)/Revil(l)
to be found in the directories after 1787…

The only thing I’ve found was a George Revill (father Henry Revill, razor maker),
1802, apprenticed to Samuel DUTTON, knife maker. It is not sure if Henry Revill
is Henry Revell (1770, F1777), but the fact he is a razor maker, makes it for me
again more assumable that he is in fact the son of George Revel(l)/Revil(l) who
made razors with the trademark “falchion G R”
Revill George, Newstreet 1b

I believe George Revel (Poor boy, 1752) isn’t an option as “father George”, since, if
he would have an apprenticeship of  7 years, and would be a Freeman at 21 years,
he would have been 21y. around 1759, which would make it very tight to have gotten
2 son’s who would have become 21 years (+ Freemen) before 1781, and surely
practically impossible to have a son, 21y. in 1773.

* (see previous name list)
By 1787, as we have established earlier, Father “George Revel(l)/Revil(l)” was not in the trade anymore; his son “George Revel(l)/Revil(l)” junior, °1773, who went on with the trade, was too young to have a son who could be old enough to work together with his father in 1787. So, George REVIL & SON“, who had “George HOLDEN (Father: Elias HOLDEN, late Rotherham)” as an apprentice in 1788 for 10 years were in fact “George REVELL, cutler”, with his son “John Revell (1759, F1774)”, and not the George Revel and sons were looking for. Interesting is the following document (link1 & link2):
John REVIL (signs ‘Revell‘) married Sarah LAW, 2 Mar. 1783″;
Revil, signs Revell John 1a
Revil, signs Revell John 1b

Since several data is lost in the past, it could also very well be that “the” George Revel(l)/Revil(l) we are searching for, isn’t found in these antique documents…


To conclude, very little to non real evidence exists of which George was the George
Revil(l)/Revel(l) who made these razors with the trademark “falchion G R”
Revill George, Newstreet 1b It is very well probably though that “George REVELL/ REVILL” (1736, F1744),
was the one that is mentioned in “1774, Sketchley’s Sheffield Directory” & “1781 Bailey’s Northern Directory” as razor maker. “George Revel JUNIOR” (1770, F1776) would be the one that is mentioned in “1787 Gales & Martin” as razor maker.

Highly probable though is the fact that George Revil(l)/Revel(l)
didn’t make razors in the 19th century

Revil George 1a1Revil George 1b 2
Possibly this is an “earlier” razor, around 1790…
(no “Dip-at-toe”, younger tail (more round and shorter))


http://www.sheffieldrecordsonline.org.uk/index_cutlers.html

Information “Cutlers company”

http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~exy1/cutlers/p325.GIF

Revill - Revel - Revell


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This entry was posted in HISTORY & IDENTIFICATION, Razor makers. Bookmark the permalink.

One Response to Revil George

  1. Pingback: “Dip-at-toe” stubtails 18th century | Fikira

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