Birks “Tobacco Pipe”

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Birks (“Tobacco Pipe” mark)
(Updated, 2017, August (Total revise of the structure of the article), Okt)
Please first read:
Background information about the Cutlers’ Company, Freedom, marks…
(This article has information which makes certain things more clear)

 “BIRKS

One of the most famous razor marks of the “Birks” family is the “Tobacco Pipe” mark:

Birks William and John,(2) Birks William, Jr.?

The “Birks” family had different other marks as well, together with a vast history!
1682 Birks William > Rodgers? 1720, Birks Henry Birks William & son,(2) Birks William, Sr.? Birks William & son,(3) Birks William Jr.? Birks William and John,(2) Birks William, Jr.? Birks William and John,(3) Birks John?



First of all, a chronological collection of data (youngest data first):



1822 “Baines’s Directory Yorkshire“, Vol 1 West Riding, Sheffield;
Birks Louisa, gentwmn. Norfolk st.

1807
County of York, The Poll for Knights of the Shire
1807 THE POLL FOR KNIGHTS OF THE SHIRE, kopie 
(*)

Mortgage“, Louisa Birks of Sheffield, spinster, to Joseph Royle …
Land in Scargell Knowle … , Sheffield formerly demised by
Edmund Lambert … to Henry Birks
19 September, 1806. (1)


Wills and administrations;

  • Louisa Birks, 4 November, 1825; proved 1827.
  • (Copy) William Birks, 16 February, 1805; proved 1813.
  • Administration of John Birks, to his brother William, 15 December, 1804.
  • Administration of William Spencer late of Lidgate in the parish of Sheffield,
    to Ann Birks, his sister-in-law. 8 December, 1778. (2)

180... Birks John & William 1a.png(180…, maybe 1804, see “administration” above)

Universal British directory of trade, commerce & manufacture” …
Vol. 4 (Late 1794 to early 1798)
Birks William and John, Cutlers and Razor-makers, Sheffield

Robinson’s Directory of Sheffield“, 1797
Birks William and John, cutlers, 62 Norfolk-street

1792, 25 December;
The following can be an extra suggestion that “Birks, Miss Louisa”,
was a sister of “Birks, William & John”…
1792, uit: 1824, The origin of the Sheffield General Infirmary, (compiled from original documents,) 1a11792, uit: 1824, The origin of the Sheffield General Infirmary, (compiled from original documents,) 1a2
(archive.org)

Assignment;
William Birks and John Birks, both of Sheffield, cutlers,
to Louisa Birks of Sheffield, spinster.
A messuage and land in Worrall …
30 June, 1790 (3)

Further mortgage
William and John Birks.
… of 2 messuages in Jesus Gate.;
22 February 1790

Assignment of mortgage 
William and John Birks of Sheffield, cutlers.
… 2 messuages in Jesus Gate.
30 December, 1789 (4)

Insured“: William and John Birks, Sheffield, York, cutlers; 
Other property or occupiers: Ann Birks, widow; …
24 January 1789 (5)

“Gales & Martin” Sheffield Directory“, 1787
“Birks William and John (Razor Makers), Norfolkstreet

Birks William and John, Norfolk-street
also, in the same directory:
“A general alphabetical list of the principal Tradesmen and Inhabitants of Sheffield”:
“Birks William, and John, cutlers, UNION STREET
Birks William & John, Union Street 1b.jpg

Counterpart of lease“;
The Trustees of Charles … and Henry Howard …
to William Birks and John Birks of Sheffield, razor smiths.
A piece of land in Norfolk Street, Sheffield 
29 May, 1783 (6)

William Birks” (Master Cutler, 1766), died in March 1783, aged 55.
Then the control of the company passed to his sons,
William Birks” (Master Cutler, 1795) and “John Birks“.
Henceforth, the Birks’ operated alone as manufacturers
of table knives and razors until about 1817
(with a pipe device and “Fabre” (Not sure?) mark). (7,8)

“Bailey’s Directory“, 1781
Birks William and Son, Silver handle knife and fork, razor, and penknife manufacturers
Birks William and Son, silver handle knife and fork, razor,
and penknife manufacturers

Assignment of lease“;
Robert Roddis of Whiston and William Porter of the same, masons,
to … , William Birks of the same, razorsmith 
28 May 1777 (9)

Sketchley’s Directory of Sheffield“, 1774
Birks William & son, Norfolkstreet(Birks William and Son, (Razor Makers) and Penknife Cutlers, Norfolkstreet)

SHEFFIELD SILVERSMITHS, Part 1.
… in 1771 William Hancock … partnership with John Rowbotham, William Birks,
Benjamin & Joseph Withers, John Wreaks & Roger Wilson, … It is interesting that
William Birks and Benjamin Withers in September 1773, whilst still partners in
the above firm, registered a mark … along with John and Dinis (Dennis) Sykes.
That partnership which continued to 25th December 1780 … silver handles. …
Following the dissolution of the partnership of William Birks & Co., William Birks
was in partnership with his son and on 5th February 1781 entered the mark …
(Norfolk Street. (10)) It is significant that in his will of 1779. Birks gave his
occupation as cutler. He died in March 1783 when his stock in trade was left
to his two sons, William and John
 … (8, 1011)


Assignment of a mortgaged term“;
Elizabeth Withers, of Sheffield, widow of Benjamin Withers, late of the same,
cutler, decd., (Elizabeth née Houlton), William Birks, of the same, cutler
1 May 1771 (12)

1750 (c.) Birks William, Sheffield 1750 (c.) 1a
(1750 (c.); britishmuseum.org)

Birks, Henry, listed as a cutler, in 1720 kopie
“This is the mark of “Henry Birks“,  listed as a cutler, in 1720” (13)

“The mark belonging to the applicants was a tobacco-pipe, which
was originally assigned, in 1694, to “Jonathan Birks
…” (1414¹)

“The two most famous such marks in this period were the
Rodgers mark which comprised a “Star and Maltese cross
(originally granted to “William Birks” in 1682)…” (1515¹)



Secondly, from the information found on:
sheffieldrecordsonline.org.uk & freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com (“Birks”),
I was able to make a family tree regarding the ‘Birks’, connected with the
‘PIPE’ mark
(see blue frames). The actual information can be seen below
this article,
reference (A). Do mind, this is created trough my interpretation,
there could be hidden mistakes!:



Birks Family Tree
(Please use this link for better visibility → Birks Family Tree)



Next, my interpretations, assumptions, deductions, conclusions,…



  • William BIRKS” F1774/F1783, MC1795 Birks William & son,(3) Birks William Jr.?    Birks William and John,(2) Birks William, Jr.?
    &   “John BIRKSF1786  Birks William and John,(3) Birks John?
  • William (Sr.) BIRKSF1748, MC 1766, °1727-’28, †1783 Birks William & son,(2) Birks William, Sr.?
  • John BIRKS” F1726, son of “Jonathan BIRKS”, cutler, to “Father”
  • Jonathan BIRKSF1694, MC1714, son of “William BIRKS”, Dawroyd, yeoman
Birks German Steel
(“German Steel”, IMHO, made around 1786-1800; straightrazorplace.com/That 1700’s Show)
Birks pipe
(IMHO, made around 1770-1790; straightrazorplace.com/That 1700’s Show)
Birks Box, 4 razors Pipe 1a Jun 26, 2017, Winning bid-US $1,037.00Birks Box, 4 razors Pipe 1dBirks Box, 4 razors Pipe 1g 2Birks Box, 4 razors Pipe 1g 3Birks Box, 4 razors Pipe 1e 2
Langres 1a
Langres 1b
(IMHO, made around 1774-1800; straightrazorplace.com/agres Cast Steel)

TheTobacco Pipemark is best known in connection with 
William BIRKS” F1774/F1783, MC1795 &John BIRKSF1786,
as seen in the Gales & Martin” Sheffield Directory“, 1787;

“Gales & Martin” Sheffield Directory”, 1787Birks William and John, Norfolk-street

Birks William (Jr.)” and “John” were razor makers at Norfolkstreet, Sheffield.
Their father was “William Birks (Sr.)“, MC (Master Cutler) 1766 (7).

I will explain further, but it is “William Birks (Sr.)” & his son “William Birks (Jr.)“,
listed as “Birks William and Son” in “Sketchley’s Directory of Sheffield“, 1774;

“Sketchley’s Directory of Sheffield”, 1774
Birks William & son, Norfolkstreet

They also made razors & pen-knifes at Norfolk Street.

William Birks (Sr.)and later also his sonBirks William (Jr.)” were also
involved in the silversmith trade, producing for example silver knife handles;

  • 1771, “William Hancock & John Rowbotham & Co“, a silver plating company
    which included … “William Birks” …
  • 1773, whilst still partners in the above firm, “William Birks & Co.” was founded, with “William Birks“, “Benjamin Withers” & “John & Dinis (Dennis) Sykes”
  • The partnership “William Birks & Co.“, silver plated cutlers,
    continued until 25th December 1780
  • 1781, following the dissolution of the partnership of “William Birks & Co.“,
    William Birks Sr.” was in partnership with his son (“William Birks Jr.“)
    at Norfolk Street.
  • It is significant that in his will of 1779 Birks gave his occupation as cutler. He died
    in March 1783 when his stock in trade was left to his two sonsWilliam and John.
    (8, 1011)
  • The book “Sheffield plate, its history, manufacture and art (p.285)” shows:
    “Birks, W. and J., Norfolk St. (Earliest Mention) 1787, Plated Table Knives”:
    1787 Sheffield plate, its history, manufacture and art; with makers' names and marks, also a note on foreign Sheffield plate, with illustrations 1a1787 Sheffield plate, its history, manufacture and art; with makers' names and marks, also a note on foreign Sheffield plate, with illustrations 1b

Concluded, “William Birks (Sr.) and Son“, Silver Plate workers, Norfolk Street, 1781,
which became “William Birks (Jr.) and John“, are one and the same as:
William Birks (Sr.) and Son“, razor makers & Penknife Cutlers, Norfolk Street
(“Sketchley’s” 1774 with “Pipe” mark) which became “William Birks (Jr.) and John
(“Gales & Martin” 1787, “Pipe” mark)


Searching freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com
& sheffieldrecordsonline.org.uk, and comparing different possibilities,
for me it is clear that the two sons of “William (Sr.) Birks were:

  • “William BIRKS” (F1774/F1783), son of “William BIRKS”, cutler, to “Father”
  • “John BIRKS” (F1786), son of “William BIRKS”, cutler, to “Father”   

So, as said, in “Sketchley’s Directory of Sheffield”, 1774, it was:
William Birks (Sr.)& his son “William Birks (Jr.)” (F1774/F1783);

Birks William & son, Norfolkstreet

Why?
Well, since William’s (Sr.) other son, John, was granted his Freedom in
1786, the latter couldn’t have taken part of the company in 1774; hence,
Birks William and Son” were “William Birks (Sr.)” MC1766 (7) and
“William Birks (Jr.)” F1774/F1783, MC1795 (7), and not “John Birks” F1786.

After “William Birks (Jr.)” F1774/F1783 was granted his first Freedom in 1774,
he could be a “Freeman”. This means, he would have a “(trade)mark” of his own,
and could set up his own firm. He would be “Free” to make & sell his own products.
In this case, he started working with his father as “Birks William and Son“.

In the “Gales & Martin” Sheffield Directory”, 1787, it became:
“William Birks (Jr.)” (F1774/F1783) & his brother “John BIRKS” (F1786);

Birks William and John, Norfolk-street


 Since “William Birks (Sr.)” (Master Cutler, 1766), of the company
Birks William and Son“, Norfolkstreet, died in 1783, aged 55 (7810),
thereby born in 1727-’28, he was granted his Freedom in 1748-’49, or later

(Since, usually, Freedom could be granted at the age of 21years (or later)
Background information about the Cutlers’ Company, Freedom, marks…)

Being given the most valuable information from “Dr Joan Unwin”
(Archivist of “The Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire”), that a Pipe mark
was used by a “William Birks“, F1748 (13), makes it for me almost certain that
William Birks (Sr.)” (father of “William Birks (Jr.) F1774/F1783” & “John Birks F1786“), was granted his Freedom in 1748


The ‘pipe’ symbol is used by these Birks cutlers (“Dr Joan Unwin” (13)):
◊ Jonathan F1694;
◊ John F1726;
◊ William F1748;
◊ William F1783

Since cutlers could and would ask for a note to be attached to a mark record saying
it was to be reserved for their son or whoever, it would make perfectly sense why
William Birks (Jr.) F1774/F1783” used the ‘Pipe‘ mark in the “Gales & Martin Sheffield Directory”, 1787

In that way, the ‘Pipe‘ mark in the “Sketchley’s Directory of Sheffield”, 1774, would been
used by “William Birks (Sr.) F1748“, ‘LANGRES‘ on the other hand would be used by
William Birks (Jr.) F1774/F1783” (assigned on his first granted Freedom in 1774);

Birks William & son, Norfolkstreet

After the death of “William Birks (Sr.)” in 1783, as seen in the “Gales & Martin Sheffield Directory, 1787“, “William Birks (Jr.) F1774/F1783” used the ‘PIPE‘ mark further along;
the Birks William and John,(3) Birks John? mark would therefore be property of “John Birks” (F1786);

Birks William and John, Norfolk-street

(Do note the reversed position of the “Tobacco Pipe” 1774 ↔ 1787;Birks William & son,(2) Birks William, Sr.? ↔ Birks William and John,(2) Birks William, Jr.? )

Later on, “John Birks” apparently moved out of Sheffield,
as this document of 180… (possible 1804) is showing;180... Birks John & William 1a.png Since “William & John Birks” are noted in the Directories of 1797 – ’98,
“John” probably moved in the period between 1797-1804(?)

In the “1807 County of York, The Poll for Knights of the Shire”,
there is only a “Birks William, razormaker” to be found:
1807 THE POLL FOR KNIGHTS OF THE SHIRE, kopie 
(*)

(Update, ’17, Okt)

The 1816-17 ‘Wardle & Pratt’ directory shows:
Birks Wm. and John, 62, Norfolk-st.;
1816-17 Birks Wm. and John, 62, Norfolk-st.

And, the 1817 ‘Brownell’ directory:
Birks William and John, Norfolk-lane;
1817 Birks William and John, Norfolk-lane (Brownell)

It isn’t clear if “William & John Birks 1816-’17”, are the above mentioned
“William & John Birks”, or if they are the sons of one another…



The following Trade-Card, made around 1750, also describes
the “Tobacco Pipe” mark, owned by “William Birks” (Sr.);

1750 (c.) Birks William, Sheffield 1750 (c.) 1a1750 (c.) Birks William, Sheffield 1750 (c.) 1a1
(britishmuseum.org)

“William Birks Razor Maker in Sheffield”
“The only Proprietor of the Tobacco Pipe (mark)”
“Acquaints all Merchants, Tradesmen & Dealers in the Manufactory of Sheffield (that by the Laws of the said Corporation, founded on an express Act of Parliament, every Freeman is to mark his Goods or Ware with the Mark assigned him by the said Corporation, & not counterfeit or copy any other Persons Mark) several Persons making Razors with the Tobacco Pipe and several other Additions, have contrived to make the Additions scarce visible and the Tobacco Pipe deep & plain, in order to counterfeit the Tobacco Pipe only; a Mark that by the Skill & Care of the Owner, has been in general Esteem for upwards of 50 Years; whereby the present Proprietor is very much injured, & the fair Trader imposed upon; to prevent which the Purchasers are desired to inspect & see that they are mark’d with the Tobacco Pipe only, which only will be warranted to be good. To prevent Persons being impos’d upon, this Mark will always be struck Black.
NB. All sorts of Shagreen Razor Cases, compleatly fitted up for Travelling Gentlemen”

 (I’m not sure, but it is possible that by “several Persons making Razors with the Tobacco Pipe and
several other Additions
“, “William Birks” is referring to “Lindley” or possibly others, 14, 14¹, 16,
Later, in 1773 a “John Hartley” was fined £6 for stamping another cutler’s mark on his knives
→ “CCA, D111, the accounts of William Birks and the accounts of George Brittain” (17))

This indicates a direct connection between “William Birks (Sr.)” (F1748, MC 1766, †1783),
to the original owner, 50 years earlier, which brings us, without a doubt, directly
to “Jonathan Birks F1694“, the first owner of the “Tobacco Pipemark


I will explain & elaborate;


Since there seems to be no records (apprenticeship, parents,…) to be found on sheffieldrecordsonline.org.uk and freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com (“Birks”),
it is very difficult to know who exactly was “William Birks, Sr.”
(F1748, Master Cutler, 1766 (7)), or his ancestors…


The facts are:

  • The “Tobacco-pipe” mark was originally assigned, 1694,
    to “Jonathan Birks” 
    (1414¹).
  • Looking on sheffieldrecordsonline.org.uk and freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com (“Birks”), that would be
    Jonathan BIRKSF1694Master Cutler 1714, son of “William BIRKS”,
    Dawroyd, yeoman.
  • Jonathan Birks F1694used the ‘PIPE’ mark
    (“Dr Joan Unwin” (Archivist of “The Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire”) (13))

This ‘PIPE‘ mark mustn’t be confused with the

Tobacco-pipe, with a dart in line with the pipe at the end“,
granted in 1698 to one “Bradshaw“.

1694, Jonathan Birks,
(1414¹)


Now, previous shown Trade-Card, made around 1750, mentions:


“William Birks, Razor Maker in Sheffield”
“The only Proprietor of the Tobacco Pipe (mark)”
… a Mark that by the Skill & Care of the Owner,
has been in general Esteem for upwards of 50 Years
 “


This shows a clear connection between
William Birks Sr. F1748” & “Jonathan Birks F1694“!

And, since we know that:

  • the ‘pipe’ symbol is used by these Birks cutlers (“Dr Joan Unwin” (13)):
    ◊ Jonathan F1694;
    ◊ John F1726;
    ◊ William F1748;
    ◊ William F1783,
  • William F1783 was the son of William F1748,
    who was connected with Jonathan F1694,
  • They all used the ‘pipe’ mark (most probably transmitted from father to son),
    it isn’t difficult to imagine that John Birks F1726 was the son of Jonathan F1694,
    and the father of William F1748

If we then look at sheffieldrecordsonline.org.uk and freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com (“Birks”):

  • John BIRKS (F1726), son of “Jonathan BIRKS“, cutler, to “Father”
    ( = son of “Jonathan” F1694)
  • Jonathan BIRKS” (F1723), son of “Jonathan BIRKS“, cutler, to Father”
    ( = son of “Jonathan” F1694)
  • Joseph BIRKS” (F1716), son of “Joseph BIRKS”, to “Jonathan BIRKS“, cutler
    ( = apprenticed to “Jonathan BIRKS” F1694?, uncle of “Joseph”?)
  • Joshua BIRKS” (8, 1708, F1716), son of “Joseph BIRKS”, Dawroyd, husbandman, to “Jonathan BIRKS“, cutler
    ( = apprenticed to “Jonathan BIRKS” F1694?, uncle of “Joshua”?; “Joshua” = probably brother of “Joseph” F1716)
  • Jonathan BIRKS” (8, 1705, F1713), son of “Joseph BIRKS”, Dawrood, husbandman, to “Thomas SPOONER”, cutler
    ( = probably brother of “Joshua” F1716 & “Joseph” F1716)
  • William BIRKS” (8,1690, F1698), son of “William BIRKS“, Dawroyd, yeoman (deceased), to “John”, cutler
    ( = brother & apprentice of  “John BIRKS” F1687)
    (“William BIRKS”, Dawroyd, yeoman, probably died between 1694-1698)
  • “Jonathan BIRKS” (1686, F1694), son of “William BIRKS“, Dawroyd, yeoman, to “Samuel SMITH”, cutler
  • George Birks” (F1690), son of “William BIRKS“, Dawroid, yeoman, to (1) (8, 1682) “Joseph BROADBENT”, scissorsmith, (2) (3, 1687, F1690) “Thomas WARD”, scissorsmith
  • John BIRKS” (7½, 1679, F1687) , son of “William BIRKS“, Dawroyd, yeoman, to “John MARSH”, cutler

and together with the fact that a “William Birks” F1698 had the mark of a
pipe above the letter ‘B’” (13), there are a few things which can be deduced:

  • Jonathan BIRKSF1694 would be the brother of “William” F1698,
    George F1694 & “John” F1687. “William” most probably would have been
    apprenticed to his brother “John“. Since the father of “William” is listed as
    deceased at the time of his Freedom, and not at the time when “Jonathan
    was granted his Freedom, father “William BIRKS“, Dawroyd, yeoman,
    probably died between 1694-1698. His son “William Birks” F1698 would
    be the above mentioned “William Birks” F1698, who had the mark of a
    pipe above the letter ‘B’” (13)
  • I wouldn’t be surprised if “Joseph Birks, Dawroyd, husbandman”, was another
    son of  “William Birks, Dawroyd, yeoman”, and thus a brother of “John” F1687,
    George” F1690, Jonathan” (F1694 & first owner of the “Tobacco Pipe” mark)
    & “William” F1698. “Joseph Birks, Dawroyd, husbandman” had at least 3 son’s;
    Jonathan” F1713, “Joshua” F1716 & “JosephF1716. The master of “Joshua” F1716
    & “JosephF1716 could therefore very well be “Jonathan BIRKS” (F1694), who
    would be their uncle.
  • “John BIRKS” F1726 & “Jonathan BIRKS” F1723 were sons of “Jonathan BIRKSF1694
  • Highly possible, the “Tobacco Pipe” mark would be inherited like this:

First: “Jonathan BIRKSF1694, son of “William BIRKS“, Dawroyd, yeoman;
→ “John BIRKS” F1726, son of “Jonathan BIRKSF1694;
→ “William BIRKS” °1727-’28, F1748, †1783son of JohnF1726;
→ “William BIRKSF1774/1783, son of “William BIRKSF1748, †1783

(Since there are a couple of “Jonathan Birks”, cutler, in a short period of time,
it is impossible for me to know which apprentices (or son’s) were of which
“Jonathan Birks”, except the ones above)

This is how I was able to make the family tree regarding the ‘Birks’,
connected with the ‘PIPE’ mark (see blue frames).
(Do mind, this is created trough my interpretation, there could be hidden mistakes!):



Birks Family Tree
(Please use this link for better visibility → Birks Family Tree)
(More information can be seen below this article, reference (A))



Updated, 2017, July

There are also other “BIRKS” razors, younger then previous ones,
with a possible connection with the previous mentioned Birks family

A “Magnum Bonum” style razor, 1810-1815, H. BIRKSBirks H:M? 1a1Birks H:M? 1b(straightrazorplace.com)

Or this 19th century (1810-1820?) H·BIRKS razor:Birks H:M? 2b.jpg(worthpoint.com, the seller refers this razor as a
H. Birks, The only known record of it dates it from 1795“,
referring at “Henry BIRKS” F1795, see hereafter)

Looking back at the information, found on sheffieldrecordsonline.org.uk & freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com (“Birks”), it seems very possibly that these razors are made by “Henry BIRKS” (7, 1786, F1795), son of “Richard BIRKS”, Owlerton, cutler (deceased), to “John“, razor maker:

  • John BIRKS” (7-3, 1814), son of Henry BIRKS, Ecclesall Bierlow, razor maker, to “James BRADSHAW”,
    Ecclesall Bierlow, knife grinder (son of HenryF1795?)
  • William BIRKS” (F1806), son of  “William BIRKS“, razor maker, to “Father”
    ( = most probably son of  “William(F1774/1783))
  • Henry BIRKS” (7, 1786, F1795), son of “Richard BIRKS“, Owlerton, cutler (deceased), to  “John“, razor maker
  • Richard BIRKS” (7, 1780, F1791), son of “Richard BIRKS“, Owlerton, cutler (deceased), to  “William Birks“, razor maker
  • William BIRKS” (F1791), son of “Richard BIRKS“, Owlerton, cutler (deceased), to (1) (9½, 1780) Enoch OAKES, scissorsmith,
    (2) (2-9, 1786) James BARLOW, (3) (F1791) E. WILSON

Henry (F1795) had 2 brothers, Richard (F1791) & William (F1791), their father Richard, Owlerton, cutler, was deceased ≤1791. It seems to be too much of coincidence that the two brothers Henry & Richard were apprenticed by William & John Birks, razor makers…
It seems to me the latter are in fact “William BIRKS” (F1774/1783) & “John” (F1786), sons of “William BIRKS” (F1748, †1783). I wouldn’t be surprised if “Richard, Owlerton, cutler”, was a brother or nephew of “William BIRKS” (F1774/1783) & “John” (F1786)…

Birks Family Tree, Henry Birks
(Also see created Family Tree → Birks Family Tree)


This razor could possibly be an early example of Henry Birks (F1795):

Birks Henry? 3a1Birks Henry? 3a2Birks Henry? 3a3(straightrazorplace.com)

Although it also could be made by for example “James Birks” (F1791),
son of “George Birks”, razor maker, who was apprenticed to his father
(“George Birks” F1754, cutler?)…

Birks Family Tree, James Birks.png
(Also see created Family Tree → Birks Family Tree)



In addition to the previously mentioned Birks family of several generations,
there are also other cutlers / razor makers who are not clearly linked
to these previously mentioned Birks’



Henry BIRKS” F1720
1720, Birks Henry

“With many thanks to “Dr Joan Unwin, Archivist,
The Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire”

“Henry Birks, listed as a cutler, in 1720” (13Birks, Henry, listed as a cutler, in 1720 kopie

A couple of razors, made by “Henry Birks, F1720”
(all have the typical “Dip-at-toe” feature “Dip-at-toe” 18th century):

Henry Birks razors 1aHenry Birks razors 1b
(ilrasoio.com)


Henry Birks 2a1Henry Birks 2a2Henry Birks 2a3


(Private collection)DSCN1501 2.JPGDSCN1502DSCN1506
(“Birks” is very clearly visible, “Henry” is not clear though)


(Private collection)
DSCN2192DSCN2027.JPGDSCN2194

Looking at the information on sheffieldrecordsonline.org.uk and freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com (“Birks”), a few things can be seen:

  • Henry BIRKS” (8 ½, 1710, 40s. premium, F1720), son ofEdward BIRKS“,
    Wentworth, corviser (deceased), apprenticed to “James BARNES”, cutler.
    (This is possibly Henry BIRKES °14 07 1698, son of Edward, Wentworth genuki.org.uk/WentworthBaptisms1690-1699). Since usually Freedom was
    granted at the minimum age of 21years, it is highly plausible that Henry
    was born in 1698.
  • Richard BIRKS” (F1731), son ofEdward BIRKS“, was apprenticed toHenry BIRKS“, cutler; therefore I believe that Richard perhaps was Henry’s brother.
  • One of the last apprentices of “Henry BIRKS” was Edward KITCHEN,
    apprenticed for 7-9 years, starting from 1752; or Joseph WILSON,
    who was granted his Freedom in 1766.
  • Because of age, data of last apprentices, I believe that “Henry Birks F1720
    could produce razor only until around 1760 (maximum), which brings us
    to the age of these razors around 1720-1760! (If not ≤1750).

Sadly, at this moment, I can’t find real proof that “Henry BIRKS” F1720
(son of “Edward BIRKS”, Wentworth, corviser) & “Jonathan BIRKS” F1694
(son of “William BIRKS”, Dawroyd, yeoman) were related to each other…

Possibly “Edward BIRKS”, Wentworth, corviser, could have been a brother/nephew
of “Jonathan BIRKS” (F1694), but that is just a guess & not sure at all!

At this moment, I haven’t found a connection between “Henry BIRKS” F1720 &
“William Birks” (MC 1766, †1783, father of “William” F1774/F1783 & “John” F1786)



William BirksF1682

1682 Birks William > Rodgers?

Star Cross 1682.png

” … six-pointed star and Maltese cross. The mark was originally granted to
one William Birks in 1682 but was then let to John Rodgers in 1724, and was
finally confirmed by the Cutlers’ Company of Sheffield in 1764.” (1515¹)

Sadly almost nothing is to be found at this moment about
“William Birks” and a mark, granted in 1682…

At this moment, I haven’t found a connection between “William BIRKS” F1682 &
“William Birks” (MC 1766, †1783, father of “William” F1774/F1783 & “John” F1786)

The only thing I could find is a “John BIRKS”, F1700, son of “John BIRKS”, apprenticed to
William BIRKS, scissorsmith. Now, the apprenticeship of “John BIRKS” F1700 normally
would start 7y. earlier (or more), setting the start date of apprenticeship at ≤1693.
Therefore, his Master couldn’t have been “William BIRKS” F1698, cutler (brother of
Jonathan BIRKSF1694) with the “pipe above the letter ‘B’” (13) mark.

It makes me wonder if the Master of this “John BIRKS” F1700 (scissorsmith) could
maybe be in fact “William Birks” F1682 (six-pointed star and Maltese cross mark),
who maybe was a scissorsmith … (not sure!)



References:
(A)
– “Name” (period of apprenticeship & year of Freedom (F),
– son of “” ,
– to “” (= apprenticed to ““)
(◊ = a symbol I’ve used with names of which I think they are relatives of each other)
  • John BIRKS” (7-3, 1814), son of Henry BIRKS, Ecclesall Bierlow, razor maker, to “James BRADSHAW”,
    Ecclesall Bierlow, knife grinder (son of HenryF1795?)
  • William BIRKS (F1806), son of ◊”William BIRKS“, razor maker, to “Father”
    ( = most probably son of ◊”William“(F1774/1783)
  • Henry BIRKS” (7, 1786, F1795), son of “Richard BIRKS“, Owlerton, cutler (deceased), to ◊ “John“, razor maker (¹*)
  • Richard BIRKS” (7, 1780, F1791), son of “Richard BIRKS“, Owlerton, cutler (deceased), to ◊ “William Birks“, razor maker (¹*)
  • William BIRKS” (F1791), son of “Richard BIRKS“, Owlerton, cutler (deceased), to (1) (9½, 1780) Enoch OAKES, scissorsmith,
    (2) (2-9, 1786) James BARLOW, (3) (F1791) E. WILSON
  • James Birks” (F1791), son of “George Birks“, razor maker, to “Father” (=son of “George BirksF1754, cutler?)
  • George BIRKS” (2½, 1769, F1791), son of “Richard BIRKS“, cutler (deceased), to “John RAGG”, cutler
  • Thomas BIRKS” (7, 1769, F1780), son of “Richard BIRKS“, cutler (deceased), to “John RAGG”, cutler
  • ◊”John BIRKS” (F1786), son of ◊”William BIRKS“, cutler, to “Father”  (²*)
  • ◊”William BIRKS” (F1774/F1783), son of ◊”William BIRKS“, cutler, to “Father”  (²*)
  • (“Richard BIRKS“, cutler, he isn’t found in these records … )
  • (◊”William BIRKS” (F1748, °1727-’28, MC 1766, †1783,
    most probably son of ◊”John” F1726;
    = father of “William (F1774/1783) & “John” (F1786),
    there isn’t found anything in these records about this “William Birks, F1748…)
  • George Birks” (7, 1741, F1754), son of “George Birks“, cutler, to “J. WATERHOUSE”, cutler
  • ◊”John BIRKS” (F1726), son of ◊”Jonathan BIRKS“, cutler, to “Father” (= most probably son of ◊”Jonathan” F1694)
  • ◊”Jonathan BIRKS” (F1723), son of ◊”Jonathan BIRKS“, cutler, to Father” (= most probably son of ◊”Jonathan” F1694)
  • ◊”Joseph BIRKS” (F1725), son of ◊”William BIRKS“, cutler, to Father” ( = son of ◊”William” F1698?)
  • ◊”William BIRKS” (F1724), son of ◊”William BIRKS“, to “Joseph SHEPHEARD”, cutler ( = son of ◊”William” F1698?)
  • Richard BIRKS” (F1731), son of “Edward BIRKS“, to “Henry BIRKS“, cutler
    (= brother & apprentice of Henry (F1720)?)
  • Henry BIRKS” (8 ½, 1710, 40s. premium, F1720), son of “Edward BIRKS“, Wentworth, corviser (deceased), to “James BARNES”,
    cutler ( = possibly Henry BIRKES °14 07 1698, son of Edward, Wentworth genuki.org.uk/WentworthBaptisms1690-1699 )
  • ◊”George Birks” (11-1, 1704, F1716), son of ◊”George Birks“, scissorsmith (deceased), to William, cutler
    (= ◊”William” F1698?; ◊”George Birks” F1716 = son of ◊”George” F1690?)
  • ◊”Joseph BIRKS” (F1716), son of ◊”Joseph BIRKS“, to ◊”Jonathan BIRKS“, cutler
    (= ◊”Jonathan BIRKS” F1694?, uncle of ◊”Joseph”?)
  • ◊”Joshua BIRKS” (8, 1708, F1716), son of ◊”Joseph BIRKS“, Dawroyd, husbandman, to ◊”Jonathan BIRKS“, cutler
    (= ◊”Jonathan BIRKS” F1694?, uncle of ◊”Joshua”?; ◊”Joshua” = probably brother of ◊”Joseph” F1716)
  • ◊”Jonathan BIRKS” (8, 1705, F1713), son of ◊”Joseph BIRKS“, Dawrood, husbandman, to “Thomas SPOONER”, cutler
    ( = probably brother of ◊”Joshua” F1716 & ◊”Joseph” F1716)
  • (“John Birks” (F1700), son of “John“, to “William BIRKS“, scissorsmith
    ( = different “John” ↔ ◊”John” F1687); = different “William” ↔ ◊”William BIRKS”, Dawroyd, yeoman))
  • ◊”William BIRKS” (8,1690, F1698), son of ◊”William BIRKS“, Dawroyd, yeoman (deceased), to ◊”John“, cutler
    (= brother & apprentice of ◊”John BIRKS” F1687?)
    (“William BIRKS”, Dawroyd, yeoman, probably died between 1694-1698)
  • ◊”Jonathan BIRKS” (1686, F1694), son of ◊”William BIRKS“, Dawroyd, yeoman, to “Samuel SMITH”, cutler 
  • ◊”George Birks” (F1690), son of ◊”William BIRKS“, Dawroid, yeoman, to (1) (8, 1682) “Joseph BROADBENT”, scissorsmith,
    (2) (3, 1687, F1690) “Thomas WARD”, scissorsmith
  • ◊”John BIRKS” (7½, 1679, F1687) , son of ◊”William BIRKS“, Dawroyd, yeoman, to “John MARSH”, cutler
    (There is a difference between freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com & sheffieldrecordsonline.org.uk
    The first states John BIRKS (F1726), son & apprentice of  Jonathan BIRKS, cutler
    The second: John BIRKS (F1786), son & apprentice of  Jonathan BIRKS, cutler, I believe the first to be true)
(¹*) “William Birks” & “John” (Birks?) are most probably the 2 brothers who were
razor makers with a “Tobacco Pipe” trademark…
(²*) “William Birks” F1774 & “William Birks” F1783 are one and the same “William Birks“,
son of  “William Birks“. The lather “William Birks” (Master Cutler, 1766), died in 1783,
aged 55. Then the control of the company passed to his sons, “William Birks” (Master
Cutler, 1795
) and “John Birks“. (7)
In 1782 (7y, F1791), a “Thomas HOBSON” started his apprenticeship with
William junr. BIRKS“, cutler; “William sr. BIRKS” was therefore still alive in 1782.

(*)
1807 County of York, The Poll for Knights of the Shire
1807 THE POLL FOR KNIGHTS OF THE SHIRE, kopie
1807 THE POLL FOR KNIGHTS OF THE SHIRE,
(1)
Reference; YWD 1039/4-5; Mortgage;
Louisa Birks of Sheffield, spinster, to Joseph Royle of the same, silverplater.
Land in Scargell Knowle near West Bar, Sheffield formerly demised by
Edmund Lambert of Manchester, linendraper, to Henry Birks; for £250.
19 September, 1806discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk or archive.is
(2discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk or archive.is
Reference; YWD 1039/6; Wills and administrations;
  • Louisa Birks, 4 November, 1825; proved 1827.
  • (Copy) William Birks, 16 February, 1805; proved 1813.
  • Administration of John Birks, to his brother William, 15 December, 1804.
  • Administration of William Spencer late of Lidgate in the parish of Sheffield, to Ann Birks his sister-in-law. 8 December, 1778.
(3)
Reference; YWD 1039/3;
Assignment;
William Birks and John Birks, both of Sheffield, cutlers, to Louisa Birks of Sheffield, spinster. A messuage and land in Worrall, Yorkshire near Oughtibridge, Sheffield for the term of recited mortgages from a family of Milns;
30 June, 1790 discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk or archive.is
(4)
Reference; 213/C/30/6
Mortgage by demise for 1000 years;
1) James Turton.
2) John Bayldon of Applehaigh, p.Royston, farmer.
– for £110.
– of 2 messuages in Jesus Gate (occupied by 1 and by Mr. Bingley, surgeon).
18 March 1789
Reference; 213/C/30/7;
Assignment of mortgage
1) John Bayldon (mortgagee).
2) James Turton.
3) William and John Birks of Sheffield, cutlers.
– reciting 213/C/30/6.
– in consideration of £110 paid to 1 and £10 paid to 2, by 3.
= of 2 messuages in Jesus Gate.
– with asignment of a fire insurance policy (Sun Fire Office) as further security.
30 December, 1789
Reference; 213/C/30/8;
Further mortgage;
1) James Turton of Sheffield, joiner.
2) William and John Birks.
– for an additional £50.
– of 2 messuages in Jesus Gate.;
22 February 1790
discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk or archive.is
(5)
Reference; MS 11936/359/553469;
Insured: William and John Birks, Sheffield, York, cutlers; 
Other property or occupiers: Ann Birks, widow; Sarh. Brown, widow;
Jno. Ballie and Josh. Hancock; Saml. Kay and Wm. Adams; Josh. Bell;
Benjn. Revil; Robt. Roebuck, victualler; widow Deakin;
24 January 1789 discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk or archive.is
(6)
Reference; YWD 1039/2;
Counterpart of lease;
The Trustees of Charles Howard, Earl of Surrey, and Henry Howard
formerly of Sheffield but now of Glossop, to William Birks and John Birks
of Sheffield, razor smiths. 
A piece of land in Norfolk Street, Sheffield
(part of the “Coach and Six” land) and buildings on it, for 99 years at £4 a year;
29 May, 1783 
discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk or archive.is
(7straightrazorplace.com/members/manah/43-william-john-birks
“I believe the razor was made by William and John Birks.
It was a very old Sheffield company. The founder was William Birks, who became Master Cutler in 1766. At the beginning it was Birks, Withers & Sykes. It was one of the first enterprises to register a silver mark in 1773. It has a complicated genealogy, because it involved three notable families, several Master Cutlers, and partnerships that became intertwined. The original partners were William Birks (Master Cutler , 1766); Benjamin Withers (Master Cutler, 1756); John Sykes and Dennis Sykes. The address was variously given as Pincin Lane or Pinston Croft Lane – thoroughfares that now correspond to Pinstone Street.
Birks, Withers & Sykes was dissolved in 1780. William Birks & Son then registered a silver mark in 1781 in Norfolk Street. When William Birks (°1727-’28) died in 1783, aged 55, control passed to his sons – William Birks (Master Cutler, 1795) and John Birks. Henceforth, the Birks’ operated alone as manufacturers of table knives and razors until about 1817 (with a pipe device and “Fabre” mark)”.
NOTE from me, “Historyrazors”: IMHO I doubt the “FABRE” mark is used by “Birks”…
Birks archive.org/birks
Knowing the 2 trademarks of “Birks William & John“, and seeing the picture above, I only can conclude an easy made misinterpretation happened and that “FABRE” in fact is a mark used by “Dewsnap John”, Queen Street…
(8homepage.eircom.net/~lawed/SILVERSMITHSPART1
“SHEFFIELD SILVERSMITHS, Part 1.”
… in 1771 William (Hancock) went into partnership with John Rowbotham, William Birks, Benjamin and Joseph Withers, John Wreaks and Roger Wilson, … (a silver plating company), this firm registered these silver marks
on 20th September 1773:
1771 William Birks,... Silver 1a
… It is interesting that William Birks and Benjamin Withers in September 1773, whilst still partners in the above firm, registered a mark
William Birks, Benjamin Withers & John and Dinis (Dennis) Sykes
along with John & Dinis (Dennis) Sykes. That partnership which continued to 25th December 1780 was described as silver plated cutlers and the only items submitted for assay were silver handles. It was clearly this distinction of products which allowed Birks and Withers to be in the two partnerships concurrently. Following the dissolution of the partnership of William Birks & Co., William Birks was in partnership with his son and on 5th February 1781 entered the mark
William Birks & son 5th February 1781 (Norfolk Street. (10)) It is significant that in his will of 1779. Birks gave his occupation as cutler. He died in March 1783 when his stock in trade was left to his two sons, William and John ...
(9)
Reference; BHD/213;
Assignment of lease;
Robert Roddis of Whiston and William Porter of the same, masons,
to Joseph Bower of Sheffield, cutler, William Birks of the same, razorsmith,
John Turner of the same, cutler, and John Barlow of the same, cutler. A delph quarry
in Wickersley in Pinchwell Field and another delph quarry lying westward.
For the residue of a term of 21 years. For £150;
28 May 1777 discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk
(10archive.org 1781, Feb. 5; William Birks & Son. Plate Workers, Norfolk Street.
or: silvermakersmarks.co.uk/Makers/Sheffield

1781 Feb 5, William Birks & Son., Norfolk Street.png

(11archive.org 1773, Sept. 29; William Birks, Benjamin Withers, John & Dinis Sykes. Plate Workers, Pincin Lane.
or: silvermakersmarks.co.uk/Makers/Sheffield
1773 Sept. 28, William Birks & Co., Pincin Lane.png
(12)
Reference CB/1240;
Assignment of a mortgaged term;
Elizabeth Withers, of Sheffield, widow of Benjamin Withers, late of the same, cutler, decd., (Elizabeth née Houlton), William Birks, of the same, cutler and John Sutcliffe, of the same, grocer, two of the executors of Wither’s will, to Robert Woofendale, a devisee and executor under Wither’s will, of Sheffield, druggist. Residue of a term of 19 years in a dwelling house in Fargate, Sheffield, which was granted by the Burgesses to Edward Clarke, of Sheffield, mason and his wife, Susannah, by a deed of 19 Nov 1755; mortgaged by Clarke to Elizabeth Withers to secure a principal of £330 plus 4% per annum interest. For £100.;
1 May 1771 discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk
(13http://www.cutlers-hallamshire.org.uk/
“With many thanks to “Dr Joan Unwin, Archivist, The Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire,
The Cutlers’ Hall, Church Street, Sheffield S1 1HG. Tel: 0114 272 8456
Website: http://www.cutlers-hallamshire.org.uk
First, I was given the following information:
“This is the mark of Henry Birks, listed as a cutler, in 1720.”
Birks, Henry, listed as a cutler, in 1720 kopie
Secondly, I was very lucky to get even more valuable information!
“I looked for other use of the ‘T’ above an arrow mark of Henry Birk‎s, but there is none. The use of the ‘pipe’ symbol is more common with the Birks cutlers – John. F1726; Jonathan, F1694; William, F1748; William, F 1783; and William, F1698 who has the mark of a pipe above the letter ‘B’.”
Also, a bit more information from “Dr Joan Unwin, Archivist, The Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire”
considering razor makers:
“The Cutlers’ Company administered the industry of cutlery-making in the Sheffield area from 1624.  It could enforce specific rules relating to the training and work practices of men.  There was strict demarcation between
the makers of knives, scissors, shears, scythes and sickles.  However, the makers of knives, generally termed cutlers, were able to make a wide variety of styles, from table knives, trade knives, hunting knives, folding pocket knives and spring knives.  The cutlers would register apprentices with the Company and would register their marks which they struck on their products.  However, they would still be listed as cutlers, hardly ever before the 1780s did they specify a particular branch of knife making.  This does not imply razors were not made, just that people didn’t specify that trade.
The records of razormakers which the Company has, are the lists of apprenticeships.  There were about 500 boys apprenticed specifically as razormakers from the late 1770s.  Of those who chose to become a Freeman and so register their mark, almost all are after 1790, when the rules changed about entitlement to become a Freeman.
The marks which were registered after 1791, are almost all sequential numbers, because so many people applied.
We have records of the marks from 1614 to 1814, when the rules changed and the Company could no longer enforce registration here at the Hall.  As the 19th century progressed, the registration of trademarks was primarily from firms, rather than individual cutlers.  These mark records have not been digitised. (2017, June)”
(14strazors.com/The_Law_Times_Reports
or (14¹anwealde.com/razors/Pages from The Law Times Reports
On the 14th April 1887 George Wolstenholme and Sons Limited, and William Nixon, of Sheffield, wrote to the Cutlers’ Company, objecting to any regrant of the mark of the pipe and dart, on the ground that there was no legal owner of it, and that it was so similar to a mark of their own as to be calculated to deceive. The mark belonging to the applicants was a tobacco-pipe, which was originally assigned, in 1694, to Jonathan Birks, and, previously to the year 1875, had become vested in George Wolstenholme, a razor manufacturer (being actually entered in the name of Wm. Hutchinson, who held it as trustee).
Wostenholme 1a.jpg

More text of this article:

SUPREME COURT OF JUDICATURE
COURT OF APPEAL.
Dec. 17, 1888, and March 23, 1889.
(Before COTTON, Linley, and Bowen, L.JJ.)
Re LAMBERT’s TRADE MARK. (a)
APPEAL FROM THE CHANCERY DIVISION.
Oct. 5, 1889
An old corporate mark of a tobacco-pipe, with a dart in line with the pipe at the end where the bowl was
stamped
, was in 1698 granted by the Cutlers’ Company of Hallamshire to one Bradshaw. In 1839, this this
mark was surrendered, and on the 7th Oct. 1839 it was to one Thomas Linley, a razor manufacturer … 
Shortly before the issuing of the advertisement mentioned below, Arthur Lambert, trading at Sheffield as a razor
manufacturer
in the name of George Johnson and Co., applied verbally to the Cutlers’ Company to have the pipe
and dart registered in his name.
Lambert asserted that the mark was sold by Linley to George Johnson on the 17th Jan. 1842, for the sum of 35l.,
for which a receipt was produced; that George Johnson died in 1867; that the mark passed under his will to his
children; and that on the 7th March 1887 a son of George Johnson assigned it to Lambert in connection with
the goodwill of the business of George Johnson & Co. The mark had been actually used (but on razors only)
by Lambert and his predecessors
in title op to the time of the application.
In consequence of Lambert’s application, newspaper advertisements were, on the 26th March 1887,
issued by the Cutlers’ Company asking for claimants to the mark.
On the 14th April 1887 George Wolstenholme and Sons Limited, and William Nixon, of Sheffield, wrote to the Cutlers’ Company, objecting to any regrant of the mark of the pipe and dart, on the ground that there was no
legal owner
of it, and that it was so similar to a mark of their own as to be calculated to deceive. The mark belonging to the applicants was a tobacco-pipe, which was originally assigned, in 1694, to Jonathan Birks, and,
previously to the year 1875, had
 become vested in George Wolstenholme, a razor manufacturer (being actually entered in the name of Wm. Hutchinson, who held it as trustee). In Dec. 1875 G. Wolstenholme assigned his
business and marks to the applicants, and the pipe mark was, on the 3rd Nov. 1876, reassigned by the Cutlers’ Company to Nixon, as a trustee for George Wolstenholme and Sons, the Cutlers’ Company not being able to
assign a mark to a limited company. The pipe mark was also registered by the applicants in London, under
the Trade Marks Registration Act 1875 in class 12, and later, in the new Sheffield registry, under the Patents,
Designs, and Trade Marks Act 1883, in class 12, in respect of knives, razors, and cutlery.

As against that there is this: that these marks have been existing side by side for 180 or 190 years, or something
like it. They were granted very nearly at the same time, and they were granted as two distinct things. The one was
a
pipe; the other was a pipe with an arrow. The requirement of the Act existing at the time being that separate and
distinct marks should be granted, these two marks were issued as separate and distinct marks. Further than that,
there is an interval of a very long period, coming down to the present time, during which it is not shown that anyone has been deceived; and though I do not hold for a moment that proof of actual deception is essential, yet
the absence of it when it might have been proved is a matter deserving consideration.
Then I have this further:
that it is said by a person who professes to know it of his own knowledge, in an affidavit that is not contradicted,
that a predecessor of the applicants did this – I will read the words of the affidavitDuring my father’s lifetime, George Wolstenholme marked in addition to his mark of a pipe upon certain razors the fig. 1, which was struck lengthwise in the direction of the stem of the pipe, and was marked as a dart, with one of the barbs cut off, and
my father took proceedings in the magistrates’ court against the said George Wolstenholme, who, in consequence, desisted from using this mark
.” 


The evidence that the mark now registered for Lambert is not the same as Linley’s, and more nearly resembles
the appellants’ mark, and so closely as to be calculated to deceive. was not disputed.
The applicants are in the
same class, and can put their mark on all goods in the class, and if Lambert is registered, he can do the same;
whereas now he can only use his mark on razors.

Respondent’s fresh evidence: Lambert and Joseph Johnson deposed that the pipe and dart mark had the dart lengthwise at the end of the bowl; that the mark bad been used continuously on razors since 1842, was always struck with one punch, and always with the bowl away from the handle, and never with the dart to the handle
end
so as  to be covered 
(15fcthighcourtelibrary.com/Trademarks and brands
“The two most famous such marks in this period were the Rodgers mark which comprised a Star and Maltese cross (originally granted to William Birks in 1682) and the I*XL mark used by George Wolstenholm & Sons, originally granted to William Smith in 1787: D. Higgins and G. Tweedale ‘Asset or Liability? Trade Marks in the Sheffield Cutlery and Tool Trades’ (1995) 37 Business History 1,”

(15¹web.prm.ox.ac.uk
There had been cutlers and silversmiths by the name of Rodgers in Sheffield from at least the 17th century. The firm’s famous trademark (embossed here in gold on the dark leather case) was a six-pointed star and Maltese cross. The mark was originally granted to one William Birks in 1682 but was then let to John Rodgers in 1724, and was finally confirmed by the Cutlers’ Company of Sheffield in 1764.

(16Help to identify my razor (I think swedish)
With following further elaboration from myself about more “pipe” marks;
In the “Sketchley’s Directory of Sheffield”, 1774, besides the “Tobacco Pipe” mark of “Birks”,
some other ‘Pipe’ marks are found;
Birks William & son,(1) Birks William & son, Norfolkstreet
Birks William & son,(2) Birks William, Sr.? (razor makers and Penknife cutlers), 
there are a few razor makers with a similar trademark:
Linley William, Samuel, John, Snighill
Linley William, Samuel, John, Snighill 1b Linley William, Samuel, John, Snighill 1c (“Linley William” & “
Linley John”, Snighill)
There are also other similar marking, though they are scissar -, and not razor makers…
Scissar makers: Twigg William, Wicker
Scissar makers: Twigg William, Wicker 1b 
(“Twigg William”, Wicker, scissors)
Scissar makers: Smith George, Holycroft
Scissar makers: Smith George, Holycroft 1b (“Smith George”, Holycroft, scissors)
Also in the “Gales & Martin” Sheffield Directory”, 1787besides the “Tobacco Pipe” mark of “Birks”,
other ‘Pipe’ marks are found;
Birks William and John,(1) Birks William and John, Norfolk-street
Birks William and John,(2) Birks William, Jr.?
(Also “table knives, silver and plated”)
There are similar marks to be found:
Lindley John, Spring-Street 1a
Lindley John, Spring-Street 1b,
as well as other similar marking, though not razor makers… :
Common Pocket and Penknives:
“Alsop Luke”, Coalpit-lane
, Sheffield
Alsop Luke, Coalpit-lane, Common Pocket and Penknives
Penknives:
“Newton John”, Sharrowmoor
Newton John, Sharrowmoor, Penknives.jpg
Scissors, common:
“Colley Widow”, Campo-lane, Sheffield
Coley Widow, Campo-lane, Scissors 1a
Coley Widow, Campo-lane, Scissors 1b or Colley - F & A Colley, also 'Widow' Colley.jpg
Scissors, common:
“Twigg William”, Wicker
Twigg William, Wicker, Scissors 1a
Twigg William, Wicker, Scissors 1b
Sickles:
“Mullins William”, Ford
Mullins William, Ford, Sickles 1a
Mullins William, Ford, Sickles 1b
Spotted Knives:
“Webster William”, Whiteley Wood
Webster William, Spotted Knives
In the article of  “Henry T. Lummus” (Henry Tilton Lummus (1876-1960), Associate Justice,
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court 1923-1955), “More old razors”, there is also a “Pipe” marked razor visible:More old razors 1a kopie.jpeg.png(ilrasoio.com) The razor (unknown maker) is dated 1770, although I wouldn’t be surprised if it is even older…
Other ‘Pipe’ razors (some yet to be identified):
2a4a

“Berger” (French):
Berger (French) 1c
Nils Grönstrand, ‘Pipe’ – ‘Crown E’
Nils Grönstrand 1c
Made by Nils Grönstrand who was a knifesmith, grinder and Master in Eskilstuna Fristad, Sweden.
In 1801 he was elected councilor in Eskilstuna. Note the Fristad stamp, “crown E”.
(Nils Grönstrand, straightrazorplace.com/razor-clubs/Stub-Tailed shavers, eskilstunaknivar.se/bilder-2/)
(Nils Grönstrand (  – 1828), pimhusse.se/knivstamplar)
1827-12-04
1827-12-04 Nils Grönstrand 1b
(https://fi.geneanet.org/fonds/bibliotheque/?go=1&lang=fi&name=gronstrand)
Nils Grönstrand ?
Nils Grönstrand ? (*M?) 2c
This is believed to be a Nils Grönstrand, but the markings next to the ‘Pipe’ could also be a ‘Star M’
(straightrazorplace.com/razor-clubs/Stub-Tailed shavers, eskilstunaknivar.se/bilder-2/)

(17etheses.whiterose.ac.uk.pdf
“In 1766, for example, seven men were fined for breaching the laws relating to apprentices and in 1773 John Hartley was fined £6 for stamping another cutler’s mark on his knives (50)
(50) CCA, D111, the accounts of William Birks and the accounts of George Brittain.

 

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One Response to Birks “Tobacco Pipe”

  1. Pingback: “Dip-at-toe” 18th century | Fikira

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